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MAY, 19O8, to APRIL, 19O9. 


H. A. PILSBRY, Curator of the Department of Mollusca, Academy of Natural Sciences, 


C. W. JOHNSON, Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, 






Acharax Dall, n. gen. of Solemj'a ..... 2 
Achatinellidse, Description of new species of . . .67 
Acteon pompilius var. multannulatus Aldr., n. var. (PL V, 

fig. 11) 76 

Alabama, A week at Claiborne ...... 98 

Alcadia pusilla intermedia Pils., n. var. . . ... 96 

Amnicolidse from Alabama ...... 85 

Ampulla Bolten, Type of 83 

Ancey, C. F. (obituary, portrait) 11 

Andrews, Mrs. George (obituary) 60 

Area (Barbatia) lignitifera Aldr. (PI. V, figs. 6,7) . .75 
Ashmunella kochii Clapp, n. sp. (PI. Till, fig. 1-3) . . 77 
Bifidaria armifera Say ...... 52, 108, 110 

Bifidaria bilamellata Sterki & Clapp, n. sp. (PL Till, fig. 7). 126 
Bifidaria (Chsenaxis) tuba intuscostata Clapp, n. sub. sp. 

(PL Til) 76, 96 

Bifidaria clappi Sterki, n. sp. (PL Till, fig. 4) . . .108 
Bittium hiloense Pils. & Tan., n. sp. (fig. 1) . . .56 

Brachiopods, Some new 28 

Caecum johnsoni Winkle}', n, sp. . . . . .54 

California!! Mollusks, Miscellaneous notes on . .37 

Cancellaria ? sotoensis Aldr., (PL T, fig. 3) . . .74 
Chloritis tosanus okiensis Pils. & Hir. . . . .44 

Clappia clappi Walker, n. sp. (PL VI, figs. 1, 4, 7) . .89 



Clappia, n. gen .89 

Corbula clarksana Aid., n. sp. (PI. V, figs. 4, 5) . . 74 

Ccelocentrurn hinkleyi Pils., n. sp. . . . 138 

Coelocentrum ischnostele Pils., n. sp. . . . . 139 

Coryphella mananensis Stimp. ...... 15 

Cratena gymnota (Couth.) ....... 15 

Cuban notes . ....... 3 

Cypraea annettse Dall, n. n. . . . . - . . 125 

Cypraea californiana Gray ....... 126 

Cyprsea caputdraconis Nielv. ...... 126 

Cyprsea costispunctata Gask. ...... 126 

Cyprsea gracilis, Notes on . . . . . . .10 

Cyprsea miliaris var. nivea Preston, n. var. . . . 121 

Cypraga robertsi Hid. ........ 125 

Cypraea sowerbyi Kien. . . . . . . .125 

Cyprsea xanthodon var. carnicolor Preston, n. var. . . 121 
Danish Molluscan fauna, A small addition to the knowledge 

of the 54 

Dendronotus frondosus ....... 15 

Diplommatina okiensis Pils. & Hir. . . . . .43 

Euglandina liebmanni (Pfr.) ...... 114 

Epitonium (Acrilla) atwoodi Dall., n. sp. . . . .80 

Erato albescens Dall 126 

Euconulus fulvus and E. trochiformis . . . .25 

Exotic Vivipara in California ...... 33 

Facelina bostonensis Couth. ...... 16 

False shells 70 

Ferguson, David W. (obituary) 124 

Ganeaella ferruginea okiensis Pils. & Hir., n. subsp. . . 44 
Ganesella myomphala euomphala Pils. & Hir. . . .44 
Helicostyla leucophthalma togolandensis Pils., n. subsp. 

(PI. IV, figs. 5, 6) 47 

Helix arbustorum var. roseolabiata . . . . .72 

Helix hortensis, A note on 30, 52 

Heron held prisoner by a clam ...... 82 

Holospira bartschi Pils. & Clapp, n. sp. (PI. VIII, figs. 5, 6). 114 
Holospira goldmani Bartsch. . . . . . .115 

Homalog}'ra atomus in New England . . . .95 

Hyriine and Uniouinse, Remarks on the subfamilies . .106 


lanthina globosa in California ...... 37 

Japan, Land shells of the Oki Islands . . . .41 

Kaliella okiensis Pils. & Hir., n. sp. . . . . .45 

Kaliella gsetanoi Pils. & Van., n. sp. (fig. 1) . . .73 
Kellia interstriata Aldrich, n. sp. (PI. V, figs. 1,2). .74 

Kendig, Rev. A. B. (obituary) Ill 

Lamellidoris aspera ........ 15 

Laminella aspersa Baldwin, n. sp. . . . .68 

Laminella duoplicata Baldwin, n. sp. . . . . .68 

Lampsilis iridella Pils. & Frierson, n. sp. . . . . 81 

Laqueus morsei Dall, n. sp. ...... 29 

Lepton vaughani Aldr., n. sp. (PI. V, fig. 12) . . .76 
Leptopoma tagolandense Pils., n. sp. (PI. IV, fig. 1,2) . 46 
Leptopoma tagolandense var. iinmaculata Pils., n. var. . 46 
Limax flavus ......... 66 

Littorina, The development of . . . . . .83 

Lymnrea bakeri Walker, n. sp. (PI. II, figs. 11, 12) . . 18 
Lymnsea cubensis Pfr. . . . . . . 7, 19 

Lymnsea cyclostoma Walker, n. sp. (PL II, fig. 4) . 7,19 
Lymntea davisi Walker, n, sp. (PI. II, figs. 9, 10) . .17 
Lymneea desidiosa (PL II ; PL III) . . . 18, 20 

Lymnaga desidiosa var. peninsulse Walker, n. var. (PL II, 

fig. 7) 9, 16 

Lymnaea florissantica Cockerell, n. sp. . . . . 69 

Lymnrea hendersoni Baker, n. sp. . . . . .140 

Lymnsea marginata ....... 5, 18 

Lymnaea obrussa Say . . . . . . . .22 

Lymneea palustris, Formation of epiphragm by . . .33 
Lymnaea petoskeyensis Walker, n. sp. (PL I, figs. 3, 5, 7). 6, 18 
Lyinnrea pilsbiyana Walker, n. sp. (PL I, figs. 2, 8, 11). 4, 18 
Lymnaea stagnalis var. perampla Walker, n. var. (PL II, 

figs. 5, 6) 8, 19 

Lymnsea umbilicata . . . . . . . 7, 19 

Lymuaeas, New Michigan . . . . . . 4, 16 

Maine, Additional shells found in Aroostook County . 19 

Maine, Fossil and living shells found in Little Mud Lake, 

Westland (Aroostook County) ..... 105 

Martyn's Universal Conchology . . . . . .72 

Meseschiza grosvenorii Lea . . . . . .56 


Mexico, Notes on shells collected at Balsas . . .114 

Minnesota Mollusks, Records of 119 

Mitramorpha eocenensis Aldrich, n. sp. (fig.) . . .13 

Mollusca of Keene, New Hampshire 32 

Nason collection 10 

Nassa perpinguis var. bifasciata Berry, n. var. . . .39 

New England fauna, Shells new to the . . . .95 

New Mexico, Mollusks from around Albuquerque . . 103 
Nitidella hendersoni Dall., n. sp. ..... 31 

Notes and news . . . .10, 33, 59, 71, 82, 95, 122 

Nudibrauch records, Two interesting New England . . 13 

Opisthobranchiata, Northern 23 

Palio lessonii 15, 16 

Paludestrina salsa Pils 53, 82 

Partulina mutabilis Baldwin, n. sp. . . . . .68 

Partulina winniei Baldwin, n. sp. ..... 67 

Pearl hunting in the Fox River, Illinois .... 122 

Petrasma Dall., n. subgenus of Solemya .... 2 

Pholadomya pacifica Dall., n. sp. . . . . 115, 142 

Physa sayi 19 

Pisidiuin in Massachusetts . . . . . . .113 

Planorbis bicarinatus . . . . . . . .122 

Planorbis bicarinatus portagensis Baker, n. var. . . .45 

Pleurobema tornbigbeanum Frierson, n. sp. (PL III). . 27 
Polygyra inatermontana Pils. . . . . . .114 

Polygyra mooreana 66 

Publications received 34, 47, 83, 96, 122 

Pyrgulopsis wabashensis ....... 56 

San Diego, Mollusca dredged at ..... 134 

Scala, Another large miocene . . . . . .80 

Shells collected at Balsas, Guerrero, Mexico, by Walter E. 

Koch in Dec., 1908 114 

Showalter collection . . . . . . . .117 

Sicily, Shells of 128 

Sigaretus (Eunaticina) erectoides Aldr., n. sp. (PI. Y, figs. 

8, 9) . . . . . . . . . .75 

Solemya 1, 2 

Solemya (Acharax) bartschii Dall., n. sp. . . . .61 
Solenomyacidse, A revision of the ... 1 


Somatogyrus decipiens Walker, n. sp. (PI. VI, figs. 10, 11). 86 
Somatogyrus hendersoni Walker, n. sp. (PL VI, fig. 2) . 87 
Somatogyrus hinkleyi Walker, n. sp. (PL VI, figs. 8, 9) . 87 
Somatogyrus pygmseus Walker, n. sp. (PL VI, fig. 3) . 88 

Sphaerium pilsbryanum Sterki, n. sp. . ... . . 141 

Strange shells . . . . ... . . . 110 

Strobilops, Notes on the genus 78 

Strobilops quadrasi and S. trochospira . . . .79 

Stylommatophora, Some notes on the locomotive disk of . 49 
Tagolanda, Land shells of . . . . . . .46 

Terebratula (Liothyris) sakhalinensis Ball., n. sp. . . 28 
Texas, List of the shells from Amarillo .... 9 

Texas, Mollusca of McLennan County . . . .63 

Torinia discoidea sterkii Pils. & Van., n. subsp. (fig. 2) . 57 
Trishoplita cretacea pergranosa Pils. & Hir., n. subsp. . 43 
Trivia galapagensis, Notes on . . . . .11 

Trivia mangeriae, Note on . . . . . . .10 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) gabbiana . . . . .39 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) thaanumi Pils. & Van., n. subsp, 

(fig. 3) . . 58 

Unionidae, Supplementary notes on the breeding seasons 

of the Ill 

Unionidse in Pennsylvania, The breeding season of 91, 99 

Unioninse and Hyriinae, Remarks on the sub-families . 106 

Valvata humeralis californica Pils., n. subsp. . . .82 

Verrill collection ........ 33 

Verticordia (Haliris) granuloides Aldr., n. sp. (PI. V, fig. 10). 75 
Vertigo nylanderi Sterki, n. sp. . . . . . . 107 

Vesicomya ticaonica Ball., n. sp. . . . . .63 

Vivipara lecythoides Bens, in California . . . .33 

Waldheimia raphealis var. albida . . . . .30 

Yates, Br. Lorenzo G. (obituary) 124 


Aldrich, T. H. . . 13, 74 

Baker, F. C 20, 45, 140 

Balch, Francis N 13, 59 

Baldwin, D. D. 67 

Berry, S. S I . . . 37, 72 

Bryant, Owen ......... 82 

Button, Fred. L 10, 11 

Clapp, Geo. H 76, 114 

Cockerell, T. D. A 69, 72 

Conner, Chas. H. . Ill 

Coolidge, Jr., Win. H. 32 

Dall, W. H 1,28,31,51,80,115,125,142 

Daniels, L. E . .119 

Ferriss, J. H 103 

Frierson, L. S 27, 81, 106 

Gripp, C. W 134 

Hannibal, Harold ......... 33 

Henderson, Jr., J. B. . . . . . . 3, 9 

Hinklev, Anson A. ........ 56 

K * 

Hirase, Y. .......... 41 

Johnson, C. W 70, 123 

Keene, L. A . 122 

Macfarland, F. M 23 

Morse, Edward S. ........ 95 

Nylander, Olof 19,30,105,143 

Ortmann, A. E 91,99 

Pilsbry, H. A., 25, 41, 46, 56, 73, 78, 81, 83, 96, 103, 115, 123, 138 

Preston, H. B .121 

Schlesch, Hans ......... 54 

Smith, Maxwell 128 

Smith, H. H ... 117 

Sterki, V 49, 107, 126, 141 

Strecker, Jr., John K. ... .... 63 

Vanatta, E. G 56, 73 

Walker, Bryant . . . . . . . 4, 16, 85 

Walker, R. D .32 

Wheeler, Rev. H. E .97 

Winkley, Rev. Henry W 53, 54, 113 





Vol.. XXII. MAY, 19O8. No. 1. 



Having recently to review the species of the Lamarckian genus 
Solemya, and having nearly all the known species for study it was a 
surprise to find that the group contains three well marked subgenera 
and several subordinate sections. A full account is in preparation, 
meanwhile the following synopsis may serve to call attention to the 
subject : 

Genus SOLKMYA Lamarck, 1818. 

I. Subgenus Solemya s. s. 

Ligament amphidetic, chiefly internal. Type -S. australis La- 

Ligament appearing on the internal face of the valve in advance 
of the chondrophore. 

A. Proximal part of the chondrophore prolonged as a thickened 
ridge part way across the interior surface of the valve, S. australis 

B. Base of the chondrophore divided, anterior part extended as a 
narrow ridge ; posterior part forming a thickened prop to the chon- 
drophore ; exposed ligament linear. parkinsonii Gray. 

C. Chondrophore thickened, without props or extended rib. S. 
solen v. Salis. 


II. Subgenus Petrasma Dall, nov. Ligament not exposed inter- 
nally in front of the chondrophore ; type S. borealis Totten. 

A. Chondrophore supported by two strong props with a deep 
cavity between them. 

1. S. borealis Totten. 

2. S. velum Say. 

B. Chondrophore with an anterior prop extended as a slender rib 
in front of the adductor scar ; no posterior prop. 

1. S. occidentalis Deshayes. 

2. S. pusilla Gould. 

3. S. panamensis Dall, n. sp. 

C. Chondrophore without props. S. volvulus Carpenter. 

III. Subgenus Acharax Dall, nov. 

Ligament opisthodetic, wholly external, visible internally only 
where it crosses the gap between the margins of the valves. Nymphg 
without props. Type S.johnsoni Dall. 

1. S.johnsoni Dall. 

2. S. patagonica E. A. Smith. 

3. S. agassizii Dall, n, sp. 

4. S. ventricosa Conrad, fossil. 

5. S. grandis Verrill and Bush. 

NOTES. S. togata (Poli) auct., and S. mediterranealuamarck, are 
synonyms of S. solen. S.jctponica Dunker, is the adult of S. pusilla 
Gould. S. macrodactyla Rochebrune and Mabille is probably identi- 
cal with S. patagonica, though the unique type of the latter seems 
pathologically callous dorsally. 

S. protexta Conrad, if not the young of S. ventricosa Conrad, from 
the Miocene of Oregon, probably belongs to Petrasma. 

S. occidentalis Deshayes, is common to the Mediterranean, West 
Indies and Gulf of Mexico. S. panamensis extends from off Santa 
Barbara, Cal., to Panama Bay ; S. valvulus Carpenter, from San 
Pedro, Cal., to the Gulf of California ; S. agassizii from off Tilla- 
mook Bay, Oregon, south to Aguja Point, Peru, in 1036-1800 
fathoms, and S. johnsoni Dall, from Puget Sound to Panama Bay 
in 60 to 1740 fathoms. 

The rarity of these species, and the fact that they usually break up 
into fragments in drying, are probably the reasons why the remark- 
able differences between the hinges of the different species have not 
previously attracted attention. 




Mr. C. T. Simpson and the writer this winter yielded to the call 
of the wild, and we have just concluded another of our collecting 
orgies in the Antilles. This time we descended upon Cuba, and all 
of those delights of the chase formerly experienced together in the 
mountains of Jamaica and Haiti we renewed in this island of con- 
chological joys. 

Now the collector with two months at his disposal can pretty well 
clean up Jamaica, barring, of course, the rare ties and the elusive small 
fry, but Cuba is an altogether different proposition. The island be- 
comes surprisingly large after leaving Havana, and then it is only in 
the mountains that the really good picking is to be found. Then, 
too, the mountains seem always to be far away from the railroad or 
the towns where accommodations are to be found. If all the exten- 
sive plains and lowlands of Cuba could be eliminated by some Alad- 
din's lamp process and the mountain systems shoved up together, as 
they are in Jamaica, then indeed Cuba would present a field to the 
snail-hunter that no other place on earth could equal. The moun- 
tains are excessively rich in molluscan life, and the species found are 
for the most part of exceptional beauty and interest. The lowlands 
are not wholly without their mollusks, only there they are more 
scattered and difficult to find. The range of the lowland species 
seems to be much greater than that of the mountain forms. In fact 
one may travel all day by train and still find quite the same species 
of land shells. In the moutains, however, the distribution of species 
is often very restricted, sometimes to one side only of one particular 
hill. But as a rule a species occurring typically at a certain spot in 
a range of mountains gradually changes through varietal forms as 
one follows the range until it acquires a new name, and perhaps still 
another one later on. Thus it is in Cuba there are so many species 
of Urocoptis, of Chondropoma, of Helicina, Eutrochatella, etc., which 
belong to strongly-defined groups having a central typical form. 
One is constantly trying to verify a suspicion that the central typical 
form represents the ancestor that lived upon the higher land and sur- 
vived a subsidence of the lower country, and that the other forms of 
the group are the descendants that have wandered away into new 


surroundings and conditions as the island was raised to its present 

There is need for much study on the distribution and evolutionary 
history of the Cuban land shells, and perhaps right here will be found 
the answers to some Cuban geological problems that fairly call aloud 
to the traveler. There is evidence, for instance, that Cuba was not 

very long ago divided and separated into several islands a large 

east and a large west one with several smaller islands lying between 
and projecting high above a shallow sea. Almost beyond question 
there has been a considerable exchange of species between Florida 
and that portion of Cuba lying directly south of Florida. This may 
be accounted for most plausibly by the migrating water fowl which 
divide their seasons between the great swamps of this portion of Cuba, 
the Everglades in Florida and the more northern waters of the United 

If the editors of the NAUTILUS can afford me space later on I 
would like to give accounts of some of our personal experiences in 
the field, particularly about the southern edge of the great Zapata 
swamp, at Vignales in the Organ Mountains of Pinar del Rio, and 
finally of our race to catch those two most astonishing shells, Uro- 
coptis elliotti and U. dautzenbergiana, which live only upon the lofty 
cliffs of two isolated mountains near Guane. 



A careful review of the Lymnseas of Michigan, incident to the 
preparation of Part II of the Michigan Catalogue, has increased the 
number of species represented in the state fauna from 18 as recorded 
in 1894 (Rev. Mich. Moll., p. 11), to 28 at the present time. 

In the material examined, the following forms occurred, which 
seem worthy of specific or varietal recognition : 

Lymnaea pilsbryana n. sp., PI. I, figs. 2, 811. 

Shell ovate-conic, slightly perforate ; dark brownish-yellow, fre- 
quently tinged with purple, with a light line just below the suture ; 
whorls 5, convex, with a deeply impressed suture, the three apical 
whorls small, forming a short conical apex, penultimate whorl twice 


as long as the three preceding, inflated and convex, body-whorl large 
and well rounded ; lines of growth strong and regular, cut by numer- 
ous fine spiral lines giving a shagreened appearance to the surface, 
in some specimens the last half of the body whorl is obsoletely mal- 
leated ; aperture broadly oval, somewhat more than one-half of the 
entire length of the shell, dark brownish-yellow within, with a liver 
colored band just within the lip ; lip sharp, regularly rounded and 
slightly expanded toward the basal margin ; columella thick, white 
with a strong fold, broadly reflected over and appressed to the axial 
region, leaving only a very small perforation, and connected with the 
upper insertion of the lip by a broad white and rather thick (for the 
genus) callus ; axis thick, solid, twisted. 

Alt. (Fig. 8) 22; diam. 13^; length of ap. 13; width 10 mm. 

Alt. (Fig. 11) 24; diam. H ; length of ap. 14; width 10 mm. 

Type (No. 21345, coll. Walker) from Washington Harbor, Isle 
Royale, Lake Superior, Mich. Cotypes in the collection of the 
Philadelphia Academy and Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

Immature specimens of this species were first taken by the Uni- 
versity of Michigan expedition of 1904, and in the report of that trip 
(Rep. Geol. Surv. Mich., 1905, Separate, p. 97) was stated to be 
" related to L. sumassi Bd., but probably undescribed." 

The expedition of 1905 was fortunate in securing fully-matured 
specimens. And a comparison of these with a photograph of cotypes 
of sumassi from the British Museum, kindly furnished by Mr. F. C. 
Baker, of Chicago, showed that the two forms were entirely dis- 

The affinities of pilsbryana are entirely with L. emarginata Say, 
a species of general distribution through the Great Lakes from 
Saginaw Bay northward. 

It differs from that species in its darker color, more inflated whorls, 
especially those of the spire, and the entire absence of the emargina- 
tion characteristic of that species. 

L. emarginata was also found on Isle Royale, and there main- 
tained the acute conical spire with a less impressed suture charac- 
teristic of the usual form of that species. The axis of the Isle Royale 
emarginata (fig. 1) is more slender, more curved and less twisted 
than that tf pilsbryana (fig. 2). Both of these figures are made from 
immature specimens. 


Lymnsea petoskeyensis n. sp., PI. I, fig. 3, 5-7. 

Shell elongate oval, acutely conic, perforate; thin, pale horn- 
color, almost white, translucent ; whorls 6, regularly increasing, con- 
vex, with a well impressed suture ; spire elongated, acutely conical, 
apical whorl minute ; body whorl somewhat inflated, elongate oval ; 
lines of growth fine and regular, cut by numerous very fine revolv- 
ing, spiral lines, surface more or less malleated ; aperture oval, sub- 
angulate above and rounded below, slightly more than one-half the 
entire length of the shell ; lip thin and sharp ; columella nearly 
straight without any fold, inner lip expanded and reflected over the 
round deep umbilicus and continued as a thick white callus over the 
parietal wall ; where this callus passes over the umbilicus toward the 
basal margin it is abruptly depressed into the umbilical opening, 
forming a well marked furrow between the columella and the parietal 
wall, and giving the appearance of a twist to the face of the columellar 
enlargement, but the columella itself is scarcely affected by it; the 
axis is large for the size of the shell, without any trace of a fold, 
and nearly cylindrical, the base of the preceding whorl abruptly 
flattened around the insertion of the upper end of the pillar. 

Alt. (Fig. 5) 23.5, diam. 11.25, ap. length 13, width 8 mm. 

Alt. (Fig. 6) 24.5, diam. 11, ap. length 13.5, width 7.5 mm. 

Alt. (Fig. 7) 25, diam. 10.5, ap. length 12, width 7 mm. 

Types (No. 14347 coll. Walker) from a small spring-brook flow- 
ing into Little Traverse Bay, near Petoskey, Mich. Cotypes in the 
collections of the Philadelphia Academy and the Chicago Academy 
of Sciences. 

This species was at first supposed to be a very thin, fragile form 
of the elongate variety of L. catascopium, characteristic of the lake 
region. But upon cutting into the shell, the peculiar shape of the 
axis forbade its reference to that species. 

Under Dr. Ball's arrangement of Lymncea (Harr. Exp. XIII, p. 
64) it would belong to the section Galba. Compared with L. desi- 
diosa Say, (Fig. 4) the axis of petoskeyensis (Fig. 3) is proportion- 
ately much larger, more elongated and more cylindrical, but the 
general features of both are the same. The peculiar contraction of 
the base of the whorl around the upper end of the pillar, so remark- 
ably developed in petoskeyensis, is present, but not at all marked, in 
desidiosa. The umbilicus in petoskeyensis is round and deep, and is 
more conspicuous in the immature shells, as the expansion of the 
broadly reflected columella nearly covers it in the adult. 



(X2 ) 

1. 2. 

( x a ) 








The little brook, only a few hundred feet long, in which the 
species lives, is also the type locality for Physa walkeri Crandall. 

Lymnsea cyclostoma n. sp. PI. II, fig. 4. 

Shell ovate conic, turreted, umbilicate, light yellowish horn- 
colored, shining ; lines of growth fine, irregular, subobsolete on the 
body whorl, stronger on the apical whorls, reticulated by indistinct 
revolving, impressed spiral lines. Spire elongated, apex subacute ; 
whorls 5, very convex, those of the spire somewhat shouldered, 
suture deeply impressed ; body whorl large, inflated, very convex. 
Aperture broad oval, subcircular, rounded above and below. Colu- 
mella broadly reflected over the round, deep umbilicus, convex, 
smooth with no fold, parietal wall with a thin transparent callus. 
Lip sharp, but thickened within by a heavy white callus. 

Alt. 7.5, diam. 3.25 mm. 

Types (No. 13599 Coll. Walker) from Indian Creek, Kent County, 
Mich. Also from Alma, Gratiot County, Mich. 

This very distinct little species was first collected by Dr. R. J. 
Kirkland, of Grand Rapids, Mich., and was listed as L. cubensis Pfr. 
(umbilicata C. B. Ads.) in my Review of the Moll. Fauna of Michi- 
gan (1894). Through the courtesy of Mr. E. A. Burt, curator of 
the Museum of Middlebury College, I have been able to examine the 
specimen of L. umbilicata deposited in that museum by Adams, and 
for comparison have figured it (fig. 1). The two species are so 
obviously distinct that verbal comparison is hardly necessary. L. 
cyclostoma differs in its more elevated, turreted spire, more broadly 
reflected columella and thickened white lip. It resembles umbilicata, 
however, in the sculpture, and is no doubt derived from the same 

In this connection it may not be out of place to add that the 
inspection of the authentic specimen of L. umbilicata confirms Dr. 
Pilsbry's reference of that species to L. cubensis Pfr. It is evidently 
distinct from L. caperata Say, and its reference to that species as a 
synonym by Haldeman, Tryon, Binney and others is quite erroneous. 

The Middlebury specimen is not quite mature. It has 4^ whorls 
and measures 6 mm. in height and 4 mm. in diameter. For further 
comparison I have figured (Fig. 2) a Rhode Island specimen, which 
is apparently typical ; the dimensions (6.5 x 4.25) agreeing almost 
precisely with those given by Adams. It is however, somewhat 


more inflated than the Middlebury specimen. The apparent fold on 
the columella is evidently an individual malformation, as it does not 
appear in any of the other specimens in the same lot. Compared 
with typical cubensis (Fig. 3), umbilicata is more globose, with a 
shorter and more obtuse spire. If the difference holds good for the 
northern form, umbilicata would be entitled to varietal rank. 

A single small specimen from Otter Lake (Lapeer ? County), 
FIG. 1. Michigan, (Text Fig. 1.) collected by the late Dr. Manly 
Miles, seems referable to umbilicata. It is smaller than 
the Rhode Island specimens (3. 5x2) and differs some- 
what in shape, the body whorl being somewhat shoul- 
dered and the spire more acute and slightly more elevated. 
But the characteristic axial (longitudinal) sculpture \% 
present although there is no trace of any spiral lines. The lip is 
decidedly thickened within, and both it and the columella are pink. 
The umbilicus is not as large as in the Rhode Island form. 

Lymncea stagnalis v. perampla n. var. PL II, figs. 5 and 6. 

This variety differs from the usual North American form, var. 
appressa Say, by its shorter, rapidly acuminating spire and larger, 
strongly shouldered body whorl ; the first three whorls of the spire 
are slender and increase regularly in size ; the penultimate whorl ia 
disproportionately enlarged, swollen and subangulated by the flatten- 
ing of the upper part of the whorl, which in the body whorl develops 
into a prominent shoulder. 

Alt. (fig. 5) 45.5, diam. 26, length ap. 28, width 18 mm. 

Alt. (fig. 6) 45, diam. 23.75, length ap. 26, width 17 mm. 

Types (No. 1834 coll. Walker) from Houghton Lake, Roscom- 
mon County, Michigan. Cotypes in the collections of the Philadel- 
phia Academy and the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Also from 
Douglas Lake near Petoskey, Michigan. All the specimens of 
stagnalis from Houghton Lake that I have seen, more than 30, are 
of this peculiar form, which apparently a well-marked local race. 

I have been informed by the late Dr. W. H. DeCamp that the late 
A. O. Currier of Grand Rapids, who was the first to make known 
the peculiar Lymnseids of Houghton Lake, intended to describe this 
form under the very appropriate name which I have adopted for it. 

An elevated, almost scalariform example of this variety was 
figured in the NAUTILUS, Vol. VI, pi. 1, fig. 6. It is interesting to 


note that in Marl Lake a small enlargement of Marl River, which 
connects Higgins and Houghton Lakes, the typical L. stagnalis 
appressa was the only form found. 

Lymnaa desidiosa var. peninsula, n. var. PI. II, fig. 7. 

Shell slender, elongated, spire long and acute, subturreted, whorls 
of the spire very convex, with a very deeply impressed suture, body- 
whorl elongated, subcylindrical, aperture oval, not very much ex- 

Alt. 13.50, diam. 6.25 mm. 

( To be continued. ) 



The " Pan Handle " of Texas is a flat, treeless plain where the 
traveler could make good use of nautical instruments. I could find 
no vestige of molluscan life there except in the deep canons, a few 
of which are encountered on a journey across the " Handle." The 
following is a list of species taken from one of these canons at a point 
about 15 miles S. E. of Amarillo. All were found in drift debris 
none actually alive and crawling about. The identifications are by 
Pilsbry and Vanatta. 

Zonitoides singleyana Pils. 

Zonitoides minuscula Binn. 

Vallonia perspectiva Sterki. 

Vallonia gracilicosta Reinh. 

Helicodiscus parallelus Say. 

Pupoides marginatus Say. 

Bifidaria pellucida hordeacella Pils. 

Bifidaria tappaniana C. B. Ad. 

Bifidaria armifera Say. 

Bifidaria procera cristata P. & V. 

Vertigo ovata Say. 

Planorbis parvus Say. 

A few specimens of Physa, Lymnaea and Pisidium too young for 
identification were also found. 



THE NASON COLLECTION. The University of Illinois has lately 
acquired the collection of shells of Dr. Wm. A. Nason, of Algonquin, 
Illinois. The collection numbers approximately 50,000 specimens, 
representing 10,000 species. Among these are large series of the 
species found in Illinois, together with many beautiful specimens 
from various parts of the world. 

THE ANCEY LIBRARY The books and many of the papers of 
the late C. F. Ancey can be obtained from Mr. Gerat, 76 rue du 
Faubourg St. Denis, Paris, France. 

NOTE ON CYPR^A GRACILIS, GASK. A few months ago, among 
some small shells from unknown localities which came into my 
hands, there appeared a small cowry which for a time puzzled me 
exceedingly, being very different from any of the species then known 
to me. Upon careful study, however, in connection with the var- 
ious monographs of the Gyprceidse, it has proven unmistakably to 
be the very rare Cyprsea gracilis, Gask, the type of which was 
brought from the China Seas by the " Samarang " and which has 
since been found only at Mauritius and Reunion I. (Weinkauff, 
Hidalgo). Although the coloration of the back has been obliterated, 
the specimen being beach-worn, it has the peculiar lip, the narrow, 
bent aperture, sparsely scattered reddish-brown dots and fine teeth 
called for in the Gaskoin description, and it also corresponds, as to 
base and contour, to the figure -in the Sowerby monograph, probably 
copied by Weinkauff and Roberts. Length, 10 mm. 


NOTE ON TRIVIA MAUGERI^E, GRAY. Of this very rare species 
sometimes also known as Tr. " Maugeri," (Roberts, Hidalgo) and 
thus far found only at the Galapagos Is I have known but three ex- 
amples in all the West American collections. The first which ap- 
peared was a badly bleached one which I detected among the molluscan 
material brought back by the Stanford University expedition of 
1898, the specimen being now in the University collection. The 
second, a fine one in the Arnheim collection at San Francisco, was 
unfortunately destroyed in the great fire of 1906 ; while my own 
specimen, although beach-worn, is in fair condition and color. 
Length, 13 mm. FRED L. BUTTON. 


the molluscan material brought back by the Stanford University ex- 
pedition to the Galapagos Is. in 1898, I noticed this novelty and 
sent it to Mr. Melvill for description (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 
Aug., 1900.) Although the small type lot of this interesting species 
were all jet black and shiny, I have since then obtained from the 
same locality another specimen which is clearly referable to this 
species but which is of a reddish-brown color, while all the other 
specific characteristics, including the two whitish spots on the back, 
are well marked. As already noted by me (Jour, of Conch., Oct., 
1902) this species proves to be ribbed throughout when perfect, in- 
stead of smooth on the back, as described. FRED L. BUTTON. 


VILL and JOHN HENRY PONSONBY (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 
ser. 8, pp. 70-86, pi. i, ii, 1908). The paper is based on a collection 
made by Mr. Henry C. Burnup, to whom credit is given for two 
new forms. The figures are excellent. In all 28 species are re- 
corded, with several varieties. 

POSED NEW GENERA (Afrodonta M. & P. and Peltatus G.-A.). 
By Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen (Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist., I, 
ser. 8, pp. 129-136, pi. 7 and 8, 1908). 


C^sar-Marie-Felix Ancey, administrator at Mascara, Algeria, was 
born in Marseilles, November 15, 1860. His father, well known 

1 Taken in part from the obituary by Mr. H. Fischer (Jour, de Conch., LV, 
pp. 404-496), to whom we are also indebted through Mr. Geret for the accom- 
panying portrait. A complete list of Mr. Ancey's writings will be found in the 
above publication, pages 406-412. EDITORS. 


for his publications on entomology and author of valuable work on 
malacology, encouraged his well-developed inclination for zoological 
studies. At the age of twenty-three he was appointed conservator 
of the fine Oberthur entomological collection at Rennes. This posi- 
tion not promising material success, he returned to Marseilles, where 
he studied law, and obtained his diploma in 1885. He then entered 
the government administration in Algeria ; was married in 1889, 
and the same year was appointed deputy administrator, and filled 
successively positions at Fort National, Boghari and Dra-el Mizan. 
After thirteen years spent in that locality he was promoted to acting 
administrator at Mascara. It was a just reward for his great quali- 
fications and for the esteem which he had been able to win amidst 
duties that were frequently of a difficult character. 

Mr. Ancey hoped shortly to fill a State mission to the Cape Verde 
Islands, which was sure to furnish opportunities for malacological 
studies. After a brief illness he died at Mascara, October 10, 1906. 
His death was a painful surprise to his scientific correspondents. 

Most of his writings were on conchology, and his many papers, 
some 140 in all, give an idea of the importance of his work, devoted 
principally to the malacological fauna of Hawaii, Central Africa, 
Polynesia, Central Asia, etc. He was especially interested in the 
study of the smaller land shells, of which he had a large collection. 
As his appointment to Mascara promised to be permanent, he ex- 
pected to be able to work up his large accumulation of undetermined 
species, still packed just as he had received them. It was his pur- 
pose some day to study the land mollusks of Algeria ; although 
thoroughly competent for the work, he hesitated to undertake it on 
account of the difficulties arising from the many doubtful species, 
which made the study of the Algerian fauna a most ungrateful task. 

Mr. Ancey is authority for many generic or subgeneric names, 
among which may be mentioned : Boysidia, Parabal/a, Haplotrema, 
Pseudomphalus, Monomphalus, Micromphalia, Platystoma, Rhytidi- 
opsis, Pararhytida, Microphyurtt, Ochroderma, Tomoste/e, Mabilliella, 
Thomsonia, Lechaptoisia, Thacmumia, Baldwinia and Armandiella. 
The genus Anceyia was dedicated to him by Bourguignat. Re- 
markably gifted and thoroughly acquainted with the bibliography of 
the subject, he leaves behind him work which marks a real progress 
in our knowledge of the terrestrial mollusks. His untimely death is 
a great loss to science. 



JUNE, 1908. 

No. 2. 




Shell small, hut five whorls remaining (the em- 
bryonic whorls are broken off), sulcate, the longi- 
tudinals close set and prominent, the spirals the 
same on the smaller whorls, but on the body whorl 
more prominent at the suture and the base ; suture 
distinct and rather deep ; outer lip denticulated ; 
pillar lip with two tubercles, the one nearest the 
canal long and tapering. Canal short, slightly 
widened and slightly twisted. 

Length 7 mm., breadth 3 mm. 
Claiborne Sand Bed, Claiborne, Alabama. 
In Mitromorpha pygmaen Dall and others examined, 

Locality : 

the spiral sculpture seems to predominate, but in the species de- 
scribed above the longitudinal is the stronger. 



The absolutely lamentable state of our present knowledge (or 
rather ignorance) of the New England Nudibranchs is in no small 
part due to the capricious and baffling occurrence of that interesting 


group. Here to-day and gone to-morrow, perhaps abundant one 
year and not observed again for decades, even on shores where they 
are in most years common if rightly sought at the right season, they 
remain practically unknown to many whose collecting is done only 
in summer. 

A good deal of evidence has accumulated to show that many of 
the forms, chiefly Aeolidians, have a peculiar life-history, somewhat 
as follows : Coming on the shore in early spring they breed in the 
rock-pools or not far below low-water mark, and almost immediately 
die. The young, growing slowly at first and escaping observation 
by reason of their minute size and often marvelously " protective " (?) 
coloration, work their way slowly off shore with the coming of 
warmer weather, migrating still further out as the cold sets in, and 
attain their growth over winter in comparatively deep water, only to 
perform the reverse migration, breed and die the next spring. They 
are thus annuals. This is supposed to be the case particularly with 
Aeolidian forms, but not even for them is the theory universally 
accepted. There are certainly grave objections to it. It has been 
urged that neither the on-shore nor the off-shore migration has been 
followed ; that the ycung ought not to escape observation over sum- 
mer even though minute and inconspicuous ; that they occasionally, 
though rarely, occur in summer adult or nearly so ; that the dredge 
fails to reveal them of nearly adult size in winter when they should 
occur. On the other hand it is a fact that many of the species have 
a fairly definite season (usually early spring, more rarely late 
autumn, and still more rarely at other times) when in most years 
they are with us in fair numbers and of full size, and thereafter 
and suddenly thence depart and are seen no more till the next year 
at the same season or perhaps many years later at the same season. 
This holds good of the rocky shores in the neighborhood of Boston, 
and I imagine few of us have ever seen there, except in spring, more 
than very scant and scattering examples of the Aeolid type. 

The following captures, therefore, have a distinct interest, even 
though, by the fault of the writer, it is much less than it should be. 

On November 15, 1905, Owen Bryant, Esq., of Cohasset, Mass., 
took from kelp dislodged by a storm from water of moderate (but 
uncertain) depth more than sixty Nudibranchs of at least eleven 
different species practically in company at that one spot. Not one 
was very young (less than say 3-4 mm.) Not one was adult. 


He very kindly notified me and gave a Sunday to a trip to 
Cohasset where I saw the remarkable haul still alive. The early 
darkness of a November afternoon, the absence of apparatus and 
books and my absorption in professional work which precluded the 
possibility of my attempting to transport and preserve the living 
creatures for further study, may be held sufficient excuse for my 
failure to identify the species at the time fully and reliably, but not 
for my appaient failure to preserve some of the more interesting 
forms for later working over. To my great regret, however, the 
single Dorid form is the only one I am now able to find. 

The species identified were as follows according to my notes: 
Cratena gymnota (Couth.). " 1 specimen quite juv., cores of cerata 

very dark." 
? Cratena veronicae Verrill. " 1 specimen, abt. | in., cerata very 

green, very like viridis A. & H." * 

Coryphella mananensis (Stimps.) " 1 specimen, abt. ^ in., juv." 
? Coryphella salmonacea (Couth.). " > diversa Couth., 1 nearly 
adult spec., abt. 1 in." Unfortunately salmonacea (Couth.,) 
[now Bergh] does not include diversa (Couth.), as I then sup- 
posed, and both species are in utmost need of further elucidation. 
Wherefore I much regret my failure to preserve this specimen 
as a consequence of which I am now quite unable to say what I 
really had before me at all events something wholly distinct 
from mananensis. 

Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius). "3 specimens, abt. 1 in." 
Dendronotus robustus Verrill. " 1 specimen, abt. f in." 
Polio lessonii (d'Orb.) " 2 specimens, abt. -g in., like A. & H's. 
figures of adult but anal tubercles very conspicuous and white 
instead of yellow." 
Lamellidoris aspera (A. & H.) ^> pallida A. Ag. "1 specimen, 

juv., abt. ^ in." 

The above enumeration certainly includes all the species (and like- 
wise all the specimens) of all except the Aeolid forms. But of the 
Aeolid species enumerated there were in all likelihood many more 
specimens, while I noted that there were at least three obviously 
different Aeolid species which I did not undertake to name. 
Quite probably there were more. The whole enumeration only 

* I had Alder & Hancock's figure before me in makiug the comparison. 



accounts for eleven specimens out of more than sixty. I only had 
time to note the larger and more conspicuous ones. 

On September 19, 1907, Mr. Bryant made a somewhat similar 
haul, although less interesting. He most kindly brought the mate- 
rial to me still alive, and I was able to study it more adequately. 

There were twenty-nine specimens of three species, and all were 
taken together from the bottom of a floating clam-car. 

The species were as follows : 
Facelina bostoniensis (Couth.) now Coryphella bostoniensis (Couth.). 

Bergh et auct, al. Europ., " 7 specimens, 4 to 10 mm." 
Coryphella mananesis (Stimps.). " 2 specimens, 8 mm., 14 mm." 
Palio lessonii (d'Orb.). " 20 specimens, 1 abt. 12 mm., the rest 
abt. 5 mm. Seem browner in coloration and much more 
sparsely tuberculated, with relatively more conspicuous circum- 
anal tubercles than the European type as figured." 

It will be noted that here again not one is adult, while not one is 
very young. 

It seems to me that these two captures suggest strongly an au- 
tumnal condensation of the half-grown Nudibranch population (of 
certain groups) in moderate depths, just off the shore perhaps, best 
explained tentatively as a " wave of migration " to deeper water for 
the winter. It is clear enough how a population, which would be 
very sparse if spread over the whole area from three fathoms, let us 
say, to extreme low-water mark, might be much condensed if the 
cooling waters or failing food supply set them all moving off shore 
about the same time, only to check and bank up at the edge of some 
particular deep channel or cold current or on some specially favor- 
able hunting-ground which all hitherto living anywhere inshore of it 
must cross. 



( Concluded. ) 
Lymnsea desidiosa peninsulx 

Types (No. 20040 Coll. Walker) from the headwaters of the 
Union River, Ontonagon County, Michigan. Cotypes in the collec- 
tions of the Philadelphia Academy and the Chicago Academy of 
Sciences. Also from Little Iron River, Ontonagon Co., Salmon 


Trout River, Marquette Co., and the St. Mary's River at Saulte 
Ste. Marie, Mich. 

This variety differs from the usual and more typical form (pi. I, 
fig. 4 and pi. II, fig. 8) of general distribution in the lower Penin- 
sula, by its slender, elongated form. It is apparently characteristic 
of the small rivers tributary to Lake Superior. With the exception 
of a few specimens from Saulte Ste. Marie, the typical form of 
desidiosa has not been as yet found in the Upper Peninsula at all. 
Peninsulas is very similar in shape to a small form of general distri- 
bution through the State, which is probably referable to some one of 
Lea's indefinite species, but differs by its much greater size, being 
twice as long with the same number of whorls. As a characteristic 
local form of a large region, it seems worthy of a name. 

Lymneea davisi n. sp. PI. II, fig. 9-10. 

Shell of medium size, globose-conic ; perforate ; light horn-color ; 
whorls 5 ; the spire about one-third of the entire length of the shell, 
rapidly acuminating and with a minute, sharp apex ; the whorls of 
the spire are flattened and but slightly convex, with a distinct, but 
not deeply impressed, suture ; body whorl large, inflated, ovate, 
flattened above and rounded below ; lines of growth distinct, fine and 
regular, minutely decussated with revolving spiral lines ; aperture 
large, pear-shaped, acutely angled above and broadly rounded below, 
about three-fifths of the entire length, lip sharp, slightly thickened 
within, straight above, somewhat expanded below, broadly reflected 
over and nearly covering the small umbilical perforation ; columella 
with a very slight fold ; axis rather thick, round, scarcely if at all 

Alt. (Fig. 9) 15.2, diam. 7.5 mm. 

Alt. (Fig. 10) 15, diam. 7.5 mm. 

Types (No. 20092 coll. Walker) from Fish Point, Tuscola 
County, Mich. This species is well characterized by its large, ovate 
body whorl and its very acute spire; the apical whorls are flattened 
and the straight line of spire is prolonged over the upper part of the 
body, giving a " pot-bellied " appearance to the shell. 

Named in honor of Prof. Charles A. Davis of Ann Arbor, its dis- 
coverer, in recognition of the many valuable contributions he has 
made to our knowledge of the distribution of the mollusca in Michi- 


Lymnsea liakeri n. sp. PI. II, figs. 11-12. 

Shell slender, elongate, perforate ; whorls 5 ; spire elongated, tur- 
reted ; apex acute ; body whorl narrow, elongated, compressed below ; 
suture deeply impressed ; lines of growth fine and regular with fine 
subobsolete, revolving, spiral lines ; aperture narrow, elongated, within 
the flare of the lip, the sides are nearly parallel, and about equally 
rounded above and below ; lip thin, sharp, suddenly and broadly 
expanded, subreflected, continuous, not appressed to the parietal wall, 
and roundly reflected over the perforation, columella straight, with- 
out a fold ; axis round and smooth. 

Alt. (fig. 12) 16.5, diam. 7.5, length ap, 8.5, width 4.5 mm. 

Types (No. 9353 Coll. Walker) from Pine Lake, Charlevoix 
County, Mich. 

This remarkable species was dredged from the marl bottom of 
Pine Lake. No living specimens were found, and in all prob- 
ability it is extinct. In its external characteristics it is more 
nearly related to L.jayi Dunker (gracilis Jay) than to any other of 
the described species, but the resemblance is a general one only, the 
two species differing in nearly every detail. The continuous, free lip 
and straight columella are exceedingly like those of jayi, and would 
naturally cause it to be referred to the subgenus Acella. But the 
axis is not gyrate, as in that group, but is rounded and without a 
fold, as in Galba. 

The young shell (fig. 11) is subcylindrical, and with its heavily- 
shouldered, turreted whorls and narrow aperture reminds one of the 
curious L. contracta Currier from Houghton Lake. I take pleasure 
in dedicating this very peculiar species to Mr. Frank C. Baker, of 
the Chicago Academy of Sciences, who has made a special study of 
the North American Lymnceas. 



Figures 1-4 inclusive are enlarged. The remainder are of natural 

Fig. 1. L. emarginata Say (immature), Isle Royal, Mich. 

Figs. 2, 9 and 10. L. pilsbryana Walker (immature), Isle Royal, 

Fig. 3. L. petoskeyensis Walker, Petoskey, Mich. 

Fig. 4. L. desidiosa Say, Ann Arbor, Mich. 


Figs. 5, G and 7. L. petoskeyensis Walker (types), Petoskey, 

Figs. 8 and 11. L. pilsbryana Walker (types), Isle Royal, MicL. 


Figures 1 to 4 inclusive are enlarged on the same scale. Figures 
7 and 8 are also equally enlarged, but on a smaller scale. Figures 
5, 6 and 9 to 12 inclusive are natural size. 

Fig. 1. L. timbilicata C. B. Ads. (ex auct.), New Bedford, R. I. 

Fig. 2. L. umbilicata, Rhode Island. 

Fig. 3. L. cubensis Pfr., Enterprise, Fla. 

Fig. 4. L. cyclostoma Walker (types), Indian Creek, Kent County, 

Figs. 5 and 6. L. stagnalis perampla Walker (types), Houghton 
Lake, Mich. 

Fig. 7. L. desidiosa peninsulas Walker (types), Union R., Onton- 
agon, County, Mich. 

Fig. 8. L. desidiosa Say, Oakland County, Mich. 

Figs. 9 and 10. L. davisi Walker (types), Fish Point, Tuscola 
County, Mich. 

Fig. 11. L. bakeri Walker (young) Pine Lake, Charlevoix, Mich. 

Fig. 12. L. bakeri (type), Pine Lake, Charlevoix, Mich. 



Circinaria concava Say, one small living shell of this species found 
at Sherman, in 1904. 

Physa sayii, Tappan, very fine, large specimens found in Calleu's 
mill pound, Caribou stream, Caribou, Maine, at Salmon brook, Lake 
Perham and in the dead water on Salmon brook in Woodland. 

Lymnsea palustris Mull., a large colony of this species was found 
in a small brook on G. C. Hall's farm 3 miles south of Caribou 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. The carinations on this are extremely 
developed; Portage Lake, Square Lake and Cross Lake all on Fish 

Volvata sincera var. nylanderi Dall., Portage Lake, Square Lake 
and Cross Lake, dredged at various depths to 25 feet. 




An examination of Say's specimens of L. desidiosa in the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia reveals the fact that all subse- 
quent naturalists have misunderstood this species and have given the 
name to a species belonging to a different group of Lymnaeas. The 
true desidiosa is a member of the palustris group, as shown by Say's 
specimens and by a close study of Say's descriptions. The two 
specimens in the Philadelphia Academy may be described as follows : 

Shell oblong-ovate, rather solid, color pale horn ; surface dull, 
lines of growth crowded, conspicuous, crossed by impressed spiral 
lines ; whorls 5, convex ; the body whorl is quite convex ; spire 
acutely conic, about as long as the aperture ; sutures well impressed; 
apex of l whorls, brownish horn; aperture long ovate; outer lip 
thin, with an internal rib or varix ; inner lip reflected over and 
appressed to the parietal wall, leaving a small umbilical chink ; 
columelar axis with a distinct plait. 

Length 15.00, breadth 7.50, aperture length 8.00, breadth 3.00 

Length 14.25, breadth 7.50, aperture length 7.75, breadth 3.50 

The specimens bear the following label in the original hand- 

writing : 

Lymnaea desidiosa Say, Journ. Acad., v. 2, p. 169. T. Say, 
Penn. ? (No. 58731). 

The figure in Binney (fig. 68) is said to be from an authentic 
specimen in the Philadelphia Academy, but no such specimen is 
now in existence, nor are the specimens mentioned from Cayuga 
Lake to be found. In the absence of any other authentic material 
Say's specimens must be taken as typical of desidiosa. A close 
analysis of Say's description would seem to indicate that he did not 
have the shell before him which has so long borne the name of 
desidiosa. He says " It is closely allied to elodes, but the whorls are 
more convex, one less in number, and the two terminal ones are 
proportionately smaller." 1 This statement is repeated in the Amer- 
ican Conchology. This statement of its relation to elodes would 

'Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., ii, p. 169. 


scarcely have been made by Say, who possessed a peculiarly dis- 
criminating sense of minute differences between shells, if he had 
been describing the shell now known as desidiosa. The size of the 
Philadelphia specimens (15 mill.) also corresponds pretty well with 
the size given by Say ( T 7 5 of an inch = about 17 mill.). The most 
convincing fact to the writer is the presence of a specimen of 
" desidiosa " of authors in the Philadelphia Academy marked 

" Lymnaea , Canandaigua Lake, T. Say" (No. 58732), 

showing that the form usually called desidiosa is not the one so 
called by Say. Prof. Edward S. Morse, who made the drawings for 
Binney's work, has been unable to give any information concerning 
the specimen figured by Binney. 

Last summer the writer made three trips to Cayuga Lake, one to 
the south end at Ithaca and two to the north end at the town of 
Cayuga, with the hope of securing specimens which would cor- 
respond with Say's specimens. Three whole days were spent in 
exploring several miles of the shore and the small creeks, and while 
specimens of both palustris and obrussa were obtained, not a single 
specimen was found which agreed with Say's desidiosa. The palus- 
tris were the large, thin-shelled form and the obrussa were rather 
small specimens, not at all like the description or specimens of 
desidiosa. As Say gave no particular part of Cayuga Lake as the 
identical spot in which the types were collected, it renders the task 
of finding locotypes well nigh impossible, since the lake is 68 miles 
in length. 

Recently, Miss Mary Walker, of Buffalo, New York, sent the 
writer a number of shells from Young's Quarry, Williamsville, New 
York, which are identical with Say's specimens of desidiosa, having 
the same number of whorls and almost the same measurements. 
These are given for comparison: 

Say's specimens: 

Length 15.00, breadth 7.50, aperture length 8.00, breadth 3.00 

Length 14.25, breadth 7.50, aperture length 7.75, breadth 3.50 

Miss "Walker's specimens: 

Length 15.00, breadth 8.00, aperture length 8.00, breadth 4.00 

Length 14.00, breadth 8.00, aperture length 8.00, breadth 3.50 


Say's figure in the American Conchology (plate 55, fig. 3) cor- 
responds with the specimens from Williauisville, all having the 
peculiar obese body whorl. Say himself identifies desidiosa from 
western New York in Long's expedition, II, p. 263, where he says, 
'' Lymneus desidiosus nob. Falls of Niagara." 

The history of desidiosa in the American monographs is interesting 
and clearly indicates that since Say's time little attention has been 
given to closely analyzing this species. In all of his references Say 
distinctly indicates a shell of the palustris type. 

Haldeman describes and figures the form now distinguished as 
obrussa and not the true desidiosa (compare his plate with Say's 
figure 3). Many of Haldeman's figures are abnormal and do not 
represent obrussa as it is usually developed. Tryon, in his contin- 
uation of Haldeman's work, (p. 104) states' that many of the figures 
on this plate are not desidiosa but a form of columella (inacrostoma). 
In this statement Tryon is wrong and could scarcely have seen 
Haldeman's specimens, for a recent examination proved them all to 
be referable to obrussa (desidiosa of authors) although as stated 
above several of the specimens are abnormal. The writer has col- 
lected many specimens similar to those figured on Haldeman's plate. 

Binney, in his Land and Fresh-water Shells of North America, 
Part II, makes obrussa a synonym of desidiosa, thus showing that 
he considered the latter the small, smooth form and not the true 
desidiosa of Say and his figure 68 is questionable for the reason and 
is probably of a long-spired obrussa. In Baker's Mollusca of the 
Chicago Area obrussa is described and figured as desidiosa. 

Recently Dr. -W. H. Ball, in his Alaska Mollusks (p. 73, fig. 51) 
figures Say's obrussa under desidiosa, but also refers in his synonymy 
to Binney's figure 68. The European monographs have given 
figures referable to obrussa rather than to desidiosa. 

Amidst the uncertainties caused by the absence of Say's types we 
must look for a shell which is closely allied to elodes, but is smaller, 
with more convex whorls, and possesses 5 instead of 6 full whorls. 
Such a shell is found in the autotypes of desidiosa in the Philadel- 
phia Academy, and this type of shell occurs in several localities in 
the eastern part of the United States, and is easily separable from 
any other known species or variety. The spire varies considerably, 
being short, or long, or even scalariform. There are from 2 to 5 
rest varices on the whorls. 


Desidiosa, then, differs from obntssa (desidiosa of authors) in it<? 
generally larger and more solid shell, longer and more turreted 
spire, more pronounced and heavier sculpture and more convex 
whorls, with deeper sutures ; in having an internal rib inside the 
outer lip and in the presence of a fold on the columella. Compared 
with palustris, desidiosa is smaller, usually more solid and with a 
more obese body whorl and a more dilated aperture. The spire, too, 
is more sharply conic and the whorls are more tightly coiled, pro- 
ducing a deeper suture. The inner lip is also more expanded, 
producing a heavier callus. The shells called elodes by Say are 
larger, more flat-sided, with a longer spire, and the whorls are not 
so rounded and are more oblique. 

If we accept the evidence afforded by Say's specimens (and there 
seems to the writer to be no other course), then the shells usually 
called desidiosa. must bear the name of obriissa, which is the first 
available name, and desidiosa must be used for the shells so-called 
by Say. 


Fig. 1. Lymnsea desidiosa Say, Williamsville, Erie Co., N. Y. 
(from collection of Miss Mary Walker, Buffalo, N. Y.) 

Fig. 2. Say's figures of Lymnsea desidiosa in Amer. Conch., pi. 
55, fig. 3. 



THOBRANCHIA AND PTEROPODA. By Nils Odhner (Kungl. Svenska 
Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar, Band 41, No. 4, pp. 1-118, pi. 
I-III, 1907). 

The above work will be welcomed by American zoologists as a 
valuable contribution to our knowledge not only of the Opistho- 
branch fauna of Scandinavian waters, but also as of great conveni- 
ence in studying the quite similar fauna of our own North Atlantic 
shores. The classic Index Molluscorum Scandinavise of Loven, 1846, 
and the Mollusca Regionis Norvegise of Sars, 1878, have been for 

1 Plate III will appear in the July number. 


many years the principal extended sources of information upon this 
subject. The paper of Mr. Odlmer is based upon the large collec- 
tion of Northern and Arctic forms which the Swedish State Museum 
has accumulated from various expeditions and other sources since its 
foundation, and which have been studied in part only by scientists. 
The geographical area represented is a wide one, nearly completely 
circumpolar in its extent. It includes principally the Arctic Ocean 
off Siberia, the Kara and White Seas, the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans 
off the coast of Norway, the waters surrounding the whole Scandi- 
navian peninsula, and to a less extent the coasts of Spitzbergen, 
Iceland and Greenland, the North Atlantic, Davis Strait, Baffin Bay 
and Bering Sea. 

The first section of the paper gives a useful systematic synopsis of 
the Opisthobranchs and Pteropods studied, based largely upon the 
well-known works of Fischer, Bergh and Pelseneer. Following 
this is a detailed summary of the geographical and bathymetrical 

The third section of the work is devoted to a description of the 
new forms found in the collection. These are Diaphana hyaUna 
Turton var. spirata, Diaphrma fffaciah's, GonifPolis lobata, Archi- 
doris -nobilis Loven MS., Is&a villosa, Doridunculus pentnbranchus, 
Idalia pulchello A. & H. var. fusca, and Cumanotus laticeps, the last 
named being the type of a new genus of Aeolidiadae. 

Of especial interest and value to students of this group of Mollusca 
are the three excellent plates, the second and third being especially 
welcome. These two present artistic reproductions in the natural 
colors of sixty-one figures of forty-one different species, prepared 
under the direction of Professor Loven by the artists W. and F. v. 
Wright, but never yet published. These form a valuable supple- 
ment to Loven's Index, the original numbers assigned by him being 
given in parentheses upon the plates. Those who have studied these 
beautiful animals in life and compared them with even the very best 
museum specimens, in which original color and body form have 
alike disappeared, will fully appreciate this preservation in a perma- 
nent manner of these important records. 

The usefulness of the paper is further enhanced by a chronolog- 
ical bibliography and a very complete index. The convenience of 
the former might have been increased somewhat by the addition of 
abbreviated titles of all the papers cited, which are omitted in most 
cases, the date, author, journal and place alone being given. 






Vol.. XXII. JULY, 1908. No. 3. 



Helix fulva as described by Miiller (1774) was a composite of two 
species: (1) adult Helix fulva of Draparnaud and later authors, and 
(2) immature Helix bidentata Gmelin. Miiller's idea exactly re- 
versed the age-relations of the two forms; he considered (1) to be 
the young stage of (2), and while he described both forms satisfac- 
torily, and gives the measurements of both, a fuller description is 
naturally given of the form he considered adult. The somewhat 
unusual conic shape, etc., rendered it easy for subsequent authors to 
recognize both forms from Muller's description. Indeed it would 
be hardly possible to mistake any other snail of the region for either. 

The next notice of the forms was by Gmelin (1701), who admits 
Muller's H. fulva without recognizing its composite nature, his ac- 
count being merely compiled from Miiller. Gmelin moreover de- 
scribed and named the adult stage of Helix bidentata, referring to 
unmistakable figures in the Conchylien Cabinet of Chemnitz. There 
has never been any controversy about the validity of Grnelin's H, 

Ten years later (1801), Draparnaud, in his Tableau des Moll, 
terr. etfluv. de la France, p. 72, restricts Helix fulva to the Eiiconu- 
lus, giving an excellent description. He also recognized and de- 
scribed H. bidentatu, the two being quite rightly placed in different 
groups. Up to the present time this arrangement has been followed 
almost universally. 


Two years later, in 1803, Montagu described and figured Helix 
trochiformis (Testacea Britannica, p. 427). The account agrees 
well with our Euconulus fulcus except in the number of whorls, 
Montagu giving it six, which is one more than E. fulvus usually has. 
Montagu did not recognize Miiller's snail in his new species. His 
knowledge of the work of continental authors seems to have been 
extremely restricted. 

So far as I know, the name trochiformis has been adopted only by 
Beck, in his catalogue of 1837, and by Dall, 1905. 1 No description 
of the snail under Montagu's name has been published since the 
original one in 1803. 

So much for the evidence from original documents. I am acutely 
aware that on any question of nomenclature there may be from two 
to a dozen opinions, each supported by arguments which to some 
will appear conclusive, yet in a case like this, where the cono.liolo 
gists of a century have been practically of one mind, a reversal of 
their judgment should not be made without full consideration of all 
aspects of the question. It might reasonably be argued that Miiller's 
description, covering the adult stage of one species (fulva auct.) and 
the immature stage of another (bidentata Gmel.), should be restricted 
to the former, even though Mu'Iler himself mistook the real relations 
of the forms. It is hardly necessary to discuss the inexpediency 
of discarding all composite species, since everybody admits that 
either with species or genera some member of the original melange 
must conserve the original name unless all be synonymous with 
earlier names. It seems to me that the case may be summarized 
thus : 

1774. Miiller described as H. fulva a composite of two species 
(Hygromia bidentata plus Euconulus fulrus of modern authors). 

1791. Gmelin eliminated H. bidentata- from the composite by his 
unmistakable diagnosis and reference. 

1801. Draparnaud recognized the composite nature of Miiller's 
H. fulva and restricted that name to the Euconulus, which he well 
described and later figured. 

I venture to submit the opinion that no action by Montagu or any 
other subsequent author should affect the status of either of the two 
species in question. Euconulus fulrus therefore should stand. 

1 Land and Fresh Water Mollusks of Alaska and adjoining regions, Harri- 
man Alaska Expedition, Vol. xiii, p. 40. 




PLEUROBEMA TOMBIGBEANUM n. sp. Plate III, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell short, triangular, thick, solid and heavy ; truncated in 
front, roundly pointed behind at the post-base. Beaks high and in- 
curved, their sculpture not seen. Post ridge rounded, and close to 
the post margin. The sides are slightly flattened just in front of 
the post-ridge, and an inflated, raised area extends from the beaks 
to the anterior base. This area is to a considerable degree concen- 
trically sulcated, the sulci becoming obsolete behind, where it be- 
comes striated; epidermis rayless, dark reddish brown or having 
faint greenish rays near the beaks. Lunule triangular, and mem- 
branaceous. The shell is markedly flattened in front, half way from 
beaks to base, showing a sort of so-called " secondary lunule." 
Nacre white, to rose color, and iridescent. Muscle scars well im- 
pressed, and separate. Beak cavities shallow. In the left valve 
there are two low, thick curved laterals, somewhat striate, and a 
stout, upright, bifid, striate, acuminate cardinal. In the right valve 
a single low, stout curved lateral upon a very wide heavy plate, or 
shelf, and a single wedge-shaped cardinal arising from a pit sur- 
rounded by a semicircular, low ridge. Cardinal plate thick, on the 
inner surface of which may be noted the dorsal muscle scars. 

Length 48, alt. 40, diam. 32.3 mm. 

Length 41, alt. 39, diam. 27.5 mm. 

Tombigbee river. Types from Demopolis, Marengo Co., Ala- 
bama, in coll. Frierson and A. N. S. Phila. Also found at Colum- 
bus, Mississippi. 

The shell may be mistaken by the casual observer, for a small 
Quadntla pyramidata, Lea, but may easily be distinguished by its 
smaller size, and especially its shallower beak cavities, lower beaks, 
and less pronounced sulcus from beak to post base. It seems a 
rather rare shell in the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers. Four 
and a half specimens were received in three "envois" from the 
former river. Mr. Bryant Walker informs me that he has two 
specimens, from the Alabama River. One from the collection of 
Dr. Lewis, and labeled by him " U. plenus," and the other received 


from Mr. R. E. Call, and placed among his "pyramidata." Mr. 
William A. Marsh has examples, which have been labeled 
" southern variety of pyramidata." Mr. Walker thinks the shell 
is however a Pleurobema, rather than a Quadrula and he places it in 
the scheme of classification next to Pleurobema taitianum, Lea. 
Compared with that species, ours is less convex, with a more or less 
distinct sulcus back of the convexity. Uniologists having southern 
pyramidata, may perhaps find specimens of P. tombigbeanum in the 



During the researches of the U. S. S. Albatross party in 1906 a 
good many brachiopods were obtained, and the range of some known 
species much extended. The examination indicates that two species 
of those obtained are undescribed. Diagnoses are now given and 
figures are in preparation. 

Terebratula (Liothyris) sakhalinensis n. sp. 

Shell large, solid, of a rather dark and ruddy brown color and 
nearly smooth surface which bears faint concentric lines of growth 
and usually fainter, irregularly radial impressed lines on the anterior 
portion of the shell ; valves moderately convex, the anterior margins 
slightly flexuous, the middle of the ventral valve is slightly squarely 
impressed and produced, the extension fitting into an analogous 
excavation in the dorsal valve ; beak stout, moderately recurved, 
usually much eroded, with a large, entire foramen ; the deltidial 
plates form a solid arch with no mesial groove ; internally a thick- 
ened collar or short tube surrounds the peduncle, and an evident, 
but not prominent, short septum extends mesially about 2 mm. from 
the collar forward, in one specimen. Hinge of the ventral valve 
solid, with no props to the dental processes ; in this valve the pallial 
sinuses exhibit two strong parallel trunks which extend nearly to the 
anterior margin before they begin to bifurcate ; the genital glands 
extend as a fine, brown, irregular reticulation over the main cavity 
of the sinuses outside the inner line of the respective trunks on either 
side ; dorsal (or hasmal) valve with a small but evident cardinal 


process ; the dental processes small and narrow ; the loop is peculiar, 
the two supporting arms are appressed and soldered to the wall of 
the valve for a distance of 8 or 9 mm., so that the loop appears to 
spring from the valve and not from the hinge ; it abruptly bends 
upward at a point about 12 mm. in front of the beak, forming a very 
wide, slender, frail, almost flattened loop with short triangular crura ; 
the width of the loop is about 12.5 mm., the height of its arch about 
3 mm., while the crura, which are curved inward parallel with the 
limb of the arch, are about 3 mm. long. A mesial septum, low and 
narrow but distinct, extends forward as far as the anterior edge of 
the adductor scars ; the pallial margin carries minute setae, which do 
not project beyond the edge of the valve. Length of ventral valve 
45, breadth 34.5, max. diam. of shell 26 mm. 

Dredged on the southeast coast of Sakhalin Island, Okhotsk Sea, 
in 64 to 100 fathoms, bottom temperature 30 F. Type, TJ. S. N. 
Mus., 110, 786. 

The remarkable loop of this species is sufficient to distinguish it 
from any other of the genus ; the characters mentioned are found in 
all the specimens. 

Laqueus morsei n. sp. 

Shell thin, smooth, polished, ruddy brown, rounded lozenge- 
shaped, somewhat attenuated in front up to a 10 mm. wide trunca- 
tion ; ventral valve with a short beak, entire foramen and short, 
wid' j , flattened area ; deltidial plates united, but showing a groove 
at the junction ; dental processes short, triangular, strong, supported 
by strong props with deep funnel-shaped cavities behind them ; pal- 
lial sinuses with two inner trunks bifurcating at the anterior third of 
the valve, and two outer ones branched on the outer side from the 
beginning; genital glands in two longitudinal lines on each side 
extending along the middle of the main trunks of the sinuses and 
barely distally bifurcated ; dorsal valve with a small but well devel- 
oped hinge-plate, but no cardinal process or cavities under the dental 
processes ; the septum is short and delicate ; the loop normally 
formed but extremely slender, except the bight of the recurved por- 
tion, which is much wider than the rest ; the valves meet in a nearly 
uniform plane, an extremely faint indication of a truncation in front 
forms the only approach to a flexuosity. Length of ventral valve 
32.5, of dorsal valve 29.0, breadth 30.5, diameter of shell 18.0 mm. 


Dredged at station 4,860 in the Japan Sea, in 122 fathoms, mud 
and stones, bottom temperature 34 1 F. U. S. N. Mus. 210,800. 

The species is named in honor of Prof. E. S. Morse of Salein, 
whose work on the brachiopods is well known. The most nearly 
related species is Laqueus marise, A. Adams, which is more ovate, 
with a narrower and more recurved beak, the genital glands differ- 
ently distributed, and the mesial septum of the dorsal valve, long, 
high, and prominent ; reaching to the anterior fourth of the valve, 
while in L. morsel it barely reaches the middle of the valve. 

A white variety (albida) of Waldheimia (= Eudesia] raphaelis 
Dall, was also dredged, the specimens being more compressed 
laterally and with sharper anterior flexures than in the type. A 
dwarf form of the same species with all the characteristics of the 
adult, except that it measures 17 mm. long instead of 37, was 
dredged in Kagoshima Gulf. The normal adults of the species show 
little or no flexuosity anteriorly, until nearly full grown, but the 
dwarf referred to possessed them in perfection. 



I have been much interested in your articles on Helix hortensis in 
America. When a small boy they were among my choicest play- 
things and I gathered large numbers of them together with H. 
nemoralis in south-eastern Sweden. 

In 1899 among a lot of marine shells collected at Grand Manan, 
and given to me for identification were three land shells. One 
specimen had five narrow, dark brown bands on a light yellow 
ground, a common form of Helix hortensis; both were of larger 
size than any specimens in my collection from Sweden, Germany 
and England. One specimen is of a rich yellow color, comparing in 
every way with European specimens in my collection. The third 
specimen was a young shell, light yellow in color and like the plain- 
colored Helix hortensis of the Maine coast. Mrs. S. Page who col- 
lected the specimens, informed me that they were plentiful on 
the Island of Grand Manan, her native home. As there is so much 


speculation relative to the origin and distribution of Helix hortensis, 
in America, I will state that in ray opinion they were introduced by 
the early French settlers in Canada, at Gaspe and along the St. 
Lawrence River; and that their distribution only along the coast is 
due to the more favorable conditions. The long cold winters 
sometimes commencing in September and lasting into the middle of 
May in Canada and Maine, are too severe and long for Helix hor- 
tensis to spread over the interior. Along the coast, and on the 
islands, the winters are not as long or as intensely cold as in the 
interior. I have gone over a very large part of northern Maine and 
a good part of New Brunswick and have never seen //. hortensis. 

I have collected Helix hortensis at Horte and Sberlotenlund on 
the south coast of Sweden within a few steps of the water edge of 
the Baltic Sea. 



During a recent visit to Cuba Mr. John B. Henderson, Jr., col- 
lected a few marine shells from the rocks along shore, between tides, 
at Ensenada de Cochinas, on the south side of the island. Among 
them was the following species which I have been unable to identify 
among the described forms of the genus. 

Nitidella hendersoni n. sp. 

Shell thin, fusiform, with an elongate, very acute spire, and about 
eight whorls; nucleus minute, white, smooth; subsequent whorls 
flattish with an appressed suture, pinkish near the nucleus, later be- 
coming translucent with dark chestnut-brown lineolations, zigzags or 
dots, frequently with white, protractive, oblique flammulations at the 
suture of which the anterior margins are bordered with a dark 
chestnut line ; also on the periphery is often a narrow articulated 
band, of white and brown spots ; the surface is covered with a con- 
spicuous greenish periostracum, which on the body whorl is elevated 
in axial lamellae not close enough to give a velvety effect but sep- 
arated by wider polished spaces ; surface nearly smooth under the 
periostracum, polished, with faint indications of fine axial or revolv- 
ing striae ; on the base there are numerous spiral grooves which 


become stronger and channeled near the end of the nearly straight 
canal ; aperture white, within purplish ; outer slightly thickened, not 
reflected, smooth within posterior angle of the aperture grooved 
and produced a little, with a subsutural obscure callosity on the 
body which elsewhere has the surface smoothly erased, edge of the 
pillar with one faint and one very strong marginal fold ; operculum 
normal. Alt. of shell 19, of last whorl 13.5, of aperture 10, max. 
diam. 8.0 mm. Found in crevices of the rocks a little below low- 
water mark. 



The shells that comprise this list were found in Keene, N. H., by 
the late George Alexander Wheelock, and form a small part of the 
extensive general collections which he made. The list is perhaps 
worth publishing as local data in regard to the shells of Keene and 
the surrounding regions. Mr. Wheelock spent almost his entire life 
in Keene (1810-1906) investigating the natural history of Monad- 
nock. The determination of the species is through the kindness of 
Mr. Charles W. Johnson. 

Planorbis parvus Say. Lyogyrus graimm Say. 

Planorbis bicarinatus Say. Anmicola limosa Say. 

Planorbis campanulatus Say. Unio complanatus Sol. 

Segmentina armigera Say. Alasmodonta undulata Say. 

f,ymnea humilis Say. Lampsilis nasutus Say. 

Physa heterostropha Say. Anodonta cataracta Say. 

Aplexa hypnorum. Sphaerium rhomboideum Say. 

Succinea ovalis Say. Sphaerium secure Prime. 

Polygyra nlbolabris Say. Sphaerium pnrtumeium Say. 

Polygyra fraterna Say. Sphaerium simile Say. 

Zonitoides arboreus Say. Pisidium variabile Prime. 

Pyramidula cronkhitei anthonyi Pisidium compressum Prime. 

These specimens are in the Thoreau Museum of Natural History, 
Middlesex School, Concord, Massachusetts. 


THE VEKRILL COLLECTION Prof. A. E. Verrill of Yale Uni- 
versity has sold to the University his great collection of marine, 
invertebrates, acquired during his work for the United States Fish 
Commission in the 16 years from 1873 to 1887. The collection is 
the duplicate of one secured at the same time and since transferred 
to the National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 


A few days ago while collecting fresh-water shells in the dry bed 
of a pond near Alum Rock Park, San Jose, the author found several 
live specimens of a form of Lymncea palustris Miiller lying on the 
dry mud surface with the aperture sealed down by thick dried 
mucous and withdrawn into their shells half a whorl. The pond 
usually contains water at least half the year but on account of the 
dry spring has contained none since April 1st at least. The bed is 
thinly covered with tall tulas so that the shells were not in the direct 
rays of the sun. This form is the only one which occurs in the lake 
and dead shells up to barely mature are abundant, and some larger. 

EXOTIC VIVIPARA IN CALIFORNIA. Amongst the fresh-water 
molluscan fauna of the "Artesian Belt," between San Jose and San 
Francisco Bay, is a large operculate edible snail introduced by the 
Chinese fifteen or twenty years ago. 4 mm. when born, carinate 
till mature, 6 months 20 mm. Occasionally in sub-brackish water, 
grows as large as a duck's egg. Plain yellow-green or with spiral 
fringes of epidermis. 

Specimens were sent to Dr. Ball, who identified it as Vivipara 
lecythoides Bens. 

It is very common where planted, but spreads slowly. 

In the NAUTILUS XV, p. 91, is a reference to Vivapara stelma- 
phora Bgt., from a dry bed of a lake or pond " at the foot of Mt. 
Hamilton." The author has been over the San Jose, Mt. Hamilton 
road collecting, and of the four lakes and ponds on the route only 
one, on the Grant ranch in Hall's Valley, appears to answer the de- 
scription, as it had been dry at the time that article was written for 


several years. The fauna was exactly the same as in the neighbor- 
ing parts of Santa Clara Valley, except extremely large, and con- 
tained not a sign of an operculate snail of any kind, nor did the son 
of a neighboring rancher know of any such form, though he knew 
the other species by sight. The other ponds were no better. Either 
the locality given was incorrect or the species was killed out by the 
drying-up of the lake while the other forms were not for some rea- 
son. Certainly it does not occur there at present for no traces could 
be found HAROLD HANNIBAL, San Jose, Cal. 


PTEROPODS. By WM. H. DALL (Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 50, 
Jan., 1908). Cavolinia couthouyi, n. sp., from Fiji Is. and New- 
South Wales. 


VARIETY. By WM. H. DALL (Smiths. Misc. Coll., Vol. 50, Jan., 
1908). G. a. haroldiana is a new form from Guadalupe Creek, 
between San Jose and San Francisco Bay, "remarkable for the 
almost total absence of lateral angulation," etc. 

BARTSCH (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 33, pp. 697-700). Planorbis 
magnificus Pilsbry occurs in Greenfield Pond, near Wilmington, 
N. C., where it is rather scarce and local. P. eucosmnis, n. sp., was 
found in the same pond. It is very close to P. bicarmatus striatus, 
but distinguished by having two chestnut bands. P. eucosmius 
vaughani, n. subsp., is from Burke's Place, La. All are illustrated 
with photographic figures. 

(Journal of Experimental Zoology, V, No. 3, March, 1908). 
Among other interesting conclusions, Dr. Drew finds that " the 


pedal ganglia are apparently dependent upon the cerebral for initi- 
ative." When isolated, stimulation causes only local responses. 
Impulses may pass in both directions through any of the commis- 
sures and connectives. Impulses may be sent by roundabout con- 
nections when the usual connections are destroyed. 

By Y. HIRASE, Kyoto, 1908. In this list of 24 pages Mr. 
Hirase catalogues the species and varieties from Japan, the Bonin 
and Loochoo Islands and Formosa, obtained since the publication of 
his former list. It is interesting as showing the results of the latest 
work on these wonderfully rich faunas. Copies of the catalogue 
will be sent free, we believe, to those interested in the collection of 
Japanese shells. A handsome plate illustrates various new or inter- 
esting species. 

ZOOLOGICAL RECORD, Vol, xliii, pt. viii, MOLLUSCA. By E. 
R. SYKES, completed by S. PACE and R. M. PACE. This complete 
record of all that has been published on Mollusca for the year 1906 
together with every generic and specific name used, is indispensable 
to all working conchologists. The part containing 103 pages can 
be obtained for 4 shillings of Harrison & Sons, 45 St. Martin's Lane, 
London, Eng. 

COTT CHADWICK, Chicago, 111., 1908. A brief account of the con- 
chological cabinet of Mrs. Alice L. Williams, which contains so 
many rare and beautiful shells. It is undoubtedly the finest private 
collection in America. The collection contains 26,000 shells, " a 
number unexceeded, I believe, by any private shell cabinet in 
America since the day of John Jay. While the collection is rich in 
species representing almost every family, one naturally turns to 
those gems of the sea, the Cypraeidse. Here we find Cyprsea 
brodeript, the only one in America, C. nivosa, castanea, chrysalis, 
coxenii crossei, similis, etc., etc., while species considered by many 
rare are represented by series to show variation. There are 10 (7. 
aurantia, 10 decipiens, 10 thersites, 7 scotti, 4 umbilicata, etc. 
Among the Conida? is enthroned Conns gloria-maris while the rare 


cervus is also there. The beautiful Volutidae are represented by many- 
species one scarcely sees in a lifetime. Pleurotomaria beyrichii is also 
among the treasures, but space will not permit us to go into details. 
It has been admirably described by Mr. Chadwick, who says: 
" My desire in this writing is to make this remarkable collection 
better known. It has been a labor of love, and I can wish for those 
who read no greater pleasure than to come under the fascinating 
spell of this great collection. It deserves a place in some great hall 
of science, and it is Mrs. "Williams's hope that it may some day be 
thus installed through public or private munificence." 

PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES, with notes on the other 
mollusks from the same region. By William Healey Dall (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 34, pp. 245-257. Numerous new species and 
subspecies chiefly discovered by Dr. R. H. Tremper, Messrs. Herbert 
W. Lowe, F. W. Kelsey, and the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, are de- 
scribed, with notes on previously known forms. 

AND LIMAX MAXIMUS. By Robert E. C. Stearns. (Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington xxi, pp. 137-140). Limax is guided to its food by 
smell. Salt liberally strewed on the floor is recommended as a 
check to their depredations. 


Nat. Sci. Phila. 1 907, pp. 363-369). The history of these old names 
is fully exposed and various errors in matters of fact in M. Coss- 
mann's review of the Cerithiacea are pointed out. 


Co., CAL. By Ralph Arnold. (Smith's Misc. Coll. vol. 50, pt. 4. 
1907). Numerous interesting fossils from Eocene, Miocene and 
Pliocene horizons are described and well illustrated. Among them 


are Vetiericardia planicosla Lam., from Little Falls, Washington, 
" the most widespread and characteristic eocene species in the 
world," Lymnsea alamosensis n. sp., from the pliocene of Los 
Alamos Valley. 





A specimen of Cypraea spadicea Gray has recently been brought 
to the writer's notice by Mrs. C. H. Fackenthall, of Pacific Grove, 
who some years ago found it alive on Chinatown Point, Monterey 
Bay. This extends the known range of the species many score of 
miles beyond the most northern locality which has previously been 

Mrs. Fackenthall also collected in March, 1907, over sixty speci- 
mens of lanthina exigua Lam. where they had been washed ashore 
near Point Pinos. This is a new locality for this species likewise. 

Another lanlhina, which is apparently the 1. globosa of Swainson, 
and is new to the Californian fauna, was found in considerable num- 
bers at Oceanside, Sari Diego county, by Mrs. T. E. N. Eaton and 
Miss Grace Eaton in the summer of 1906. This species was found 
in company with 1. exigua and another undetermined form of the same 
genus (7. communist) cast up on the sandy beach, and for the most 

part still retained the animals. 


In July, 1903, the writer made a small collection of fossils from 
the pleistocene deposit which forms the cliff just west of the bath- 
house at Santa Barbara, among which many of the species are of 
interest because not included by Arnold in his lists l of the mollusks 
of the Santa Barbara pleistocene. Such species are marked with 
an asterisk. One or two forms are likewise entirely new to the 

1 Paleontology and Stratigraphy of San Pedro, p. 52 q. r. 


Margarita pupilla Gld. Several. 

* Margarita optabilis knechti, Arnold. One specimen. 

* Calliostoma canaliculatum Mart, Several juv. 
Leplothyra bacula Cpr. Not rare. 

* Leptothyra carpenteri Pils. Not rare. 
Leptothyra paucicostata Dall. Not rare. 

* Acmaea mitra Escb. Two juv. 

* Acmaea (sp.). One juv. 

Natica clausa B. and S. Young specimen and opercula, 
Crepidula navicelloides Nutt. One specimen. 
Crepidula adunca Sby. Two examples. 
Rissoa acutilirata Cpr. Two specimens. 

* Rissoa (sp ?). One example. 
*Diala marmorea Cpr. Several. 

Lacuna compacta Cpr. The most abundant form. 

Bittium asperum Gabb. Common. 

Bittium (quadrifilatum Cpr.?). Common. 

Bittium (sp.). Common. 

*Epitonium (Opalia) borealis Gld. One specimen. 

Ocinebra perita Hds. Several. 

*0cinebra interfossa Cpr. One specimen. 

*Ocinebra lurida Midd. var. tending toward Carpenter's var. 
munda. Several. 

*Ocinebra (sp.). One specimen. 

Boreotrophon gracilis Perry. One example. 

*Boreotrophon stuarti Smith. One example. 

*Boreotrophon stuarti praecursor Arnold. Several. 

Amphissa corrugata Rve. Common. 

Columbella tuberosa Cpr. Common. 

*Nassa mendica cooperi Fbs. One example. 

Fusus robustus Trask ? One example. 

Fusus (sp.). .Several. 

*Mitramorpha filosa intermedia Arnold. 

[Note : This form was likewise found in a living condition by the 
writer at Pacific Grove, Cal., in April, 1908.] 

Clathurella conradiana Gabb. Two specimens. 

*Tornatina cerealis Gld. Two examples. 

*Dentalium indianorum Cpr. One perfect adult specimen. 

*Psephidea (ovalis Dall ?). One valve. 


Venericardia ventricosa Gld. Abundant. 

Pecten jordani Arnold. Fragments and two juv. 

Pecten caurinus Gld. Fragments. 

Pecten (sp.). Fragments. 

Pecten hastatus Sby. Several valves. 

*Monia macroschisma Desh. One valve. 

*Glycymeris barbarensis Conr. One valve. 

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimp. Fragments of the test and 
loose spines of this sea-urchin. 

*Platidea anomioides Scacch. One perfect shell probably refer- 
able to this species was found which agrees well with specimens 
from San Pedro Bay (200 fathoms), except that the foramen is 
relatively smaller and the posterior and anterior angles are more 



In the Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXX, 
Messrs. Call and Bartsch propose the specific name montereyensis for 
the preoccupied Turbonilla gracillima of Gabb. The authors must 
have overlooked the fact that Dr. Cooper in his Monterey list pub- 
lished in the American Journal of Conchology for 1870 likewise 
noticed the untenability of Gabb's name and rechristened the species 
Chemnitzia gabbiana, so that this name having priority must stand 
as Turbonilla (Chemnitzia ?) gabbiana (J. G. C.). 

3JC -t* *& K *( *P l^ 

Nassa perpinguis, var. bifasctata, nov. Among the mollusca col- 
lected recently at San Pedro by various collectors has been a color 
form of Nassa perpinguis Hds., which is strikingly distinct and is 
certainly worthy of a varietal name if color forms must be named. 
It differs from the ordinary form in the presence of two broad spiral 
bands of a deep chestnut color in abrupt contrast to the grayish-buff 
ground color of the shell. One of these bands is situated just below 
the suture, one about the periphery, and occasionally a fainter band 
makes it appearance at the extreme base of the last whorl. The 
bands vary considerably in width, but as yet I have seen no speci- 
mens having but a single band. 

Additional Notes on Monterey Molhisks. 

In my paper on the Molluscan Fauna of Monterey Bay, California, 
which appeared in the numbers of this magazine running from June 
to September, 1907, there were a few unavoidable errors and omis- 


eions which may well be remedied. The following corrections should 
be made: 

June No., p. 18, near top. 304 species were listed; not 394- 

P. 18, near bottom of page. " Terebratulina " transversa is a 
misprint for " Terebratalia." 

P. 19. The identification of Barbatia gradata is a very doubtful 
one and the species should probably be removed from the list. 

July No., p. 35. " Cregires" albopunctatus should be Aegires. 

Aug. No., p. 43. Odostomia (Ivideci) navisa should be changed 
to 0. (Ividia) navisa delmontensis, Dall & Bartsch. New subsp. 

P. 43. " Triforis adversus " is not this species but an undeter- 
mined form. 

P. 43. "Seila assimilata C. B. Adams " was identified according 
to the common misconception of that tropical species. My speci- 
mens should be listed as "Seila montereyensis Bartsch," n. sp. One 
of the co-types came from this lot. 

P. 44. "Rissoina " purpurea is a Rissoa. 

Sept. No., p. 52, near end of article. Should read as follows : 
"... of Scala (nine species), and of the Pyramidellidae (eighteen 
species)," etc. This last figure includes the additional forms enum- 
erated below. 

The following species and varieties have been determined from the 
same lot of material since the publication of the main report : 

Adula stylina Carpenter. 12 fathoms; not rare with the other 
borers in the hard mud. 

Caduhis quadrifissatus Carpenter. 12 fms.; one specimen. 

Actaeon punctocaelatus Carpenter. 12 fms.; young specimens 

Epiphragmophora sequoicola J. G. Cooper. Big Trees Station, 
near Santa Cruz; one immature specimen. 

Epiphragmophora arrosa Gould. Big Trees Station, near Santa 
Cruz ; several examples. 

EpiphragmopJtora exarata Pfeiffer. Near Santa Cruz. Speci- 
mens were also seen from various localities in the Santa Cruz moun- 
tains and from Watsonville. 

Epiphragmophora californiensis nickliniana Lea. Big Trees Sta- 
tion, near Santa Cruz. 

Polygyra cohimbiana Lea. Big Trees Station, near Santa Cruz. 

Polygyra cohimbiana armigera Ancey. One specimen found a 
few miles south of Pacific Grove in the pine woods. 


Murex (Ocinebra) interfossus var. muricatus Cpr. Pacific Grove; 
not rare at low tide. 

Turbonilla (Turbonilla) gilli delmontensis Ball and Baitseh. 12 
fathoms ; the type lot. 

Turbonilla (Strioturbonilla) stylina Carpenter. 12 fathoms; one 

Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) berryi Dall and Bartsch. Two or 
three specimens, including the type, dredged in 39 fathoms. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) canfieldi Dall and Bartsch. 12 fms.; the 
type lot. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) morchi Dall and Bartsch. ? One specimen 
dredged in 29 fathoms was doubtfully referred by Messrs. Dall and 
Bartsch to this species. 

Cancellaria crawfordiana Dall. Specimens brought in by the 

The foregoing bring the total collection, after due corrections, up 
to about 318 named species and varieties, including types or co-types 
of fourteen new species and two subspecies, besides nine other species 
not previously described, but the types of which were collected 



The Oki Islands, in the Sea of Japan north of western Hondo, 
consist of one large and three smaller islands and several islets, the 
the whole group about 23 miles long. SaigO is the chief harbor. It 
is on the southeast side of the largest island, which has a diameter 
of about 10 miles. The highest elevation is said to be about 
1700 feet. 

The mollusks of Oki have not before been noticed. 

Out of 24 species of land shells there are 9 forms which have as 
yet been found only on the Oki Islands. Two of these forms are 
reckoned to be of specific value; the other seven are subspecies of 
forms found on the adjacent portions of the Main Island of Japan, 
or in one case on Tsushima, though the two Ganesellas are so dis- 
tinct that they might with some reason be ranked as species. All of 
the other forms occur on the Main Island of Japan. 

The very close relation of the fauna of the Oki Islands with that 


of the adjacent Main Island places these islands in harmony with 
Sado, Tsushima, Iki, and other islands in the Sea of Japan and 
Korea Strait, all of which have faunas which show them to have 
been joined at no remote period to the large islands of Japan. 

In the following list, the forms peculiar to Oki are marked with 
an asterisk (*). 


Alycseus melanopoma Pils. (?). Nakamura. 

Diplommatina cassa Pils. var. Saigo. 

* D. okiensis Pils. & Hir. Nakamura. A subspecies of this 
snail, D. o. tsushimana, occurs on Tsushima. 


Eulota (Euhadra} peliomphala (Pfr.) var. Nakamura. 
Eulota (Euhadra} senckenbergiana (Kob.) var. Nakamura. 
Eulota (Euhadra) cattizona minor Gude. Nakamura. 
Eulota (Plectotropis) semula Gude. Nakamura. 

* Trishoplita cretacea pergranosa Pils. & Hir. Nishinoshima. 
Trishoplita endo Pils. & Hir. Nakanoshima. 

* Ganesella ferruginea okiensis P. & H. Nakamura. 

* Ganesella myomphala euomphala P. & H. Nakamura and 

Chloritis tosanus okiensis P. & H. Nakamura. 


Clausilia (Herniphsedusa} harimensis Pils. Nakamura. 
Clausilia japonica vespertina Pils. Nishinoshima. 
Clausilia japonic a ultima Pils. Nakamura. 
Clausilia nishinoshimana Pils. Nishinoshima. 

Macrochlamys subelimatus P. & H. Nakamura and Daimanji- 

Microcystina vaga P. & H. Nakamura. 
Microcystina ceratodes (Gude). Nakamura. 
Kaliella ruida Pils. var. Nakamura. 
Kaliella fraterna Pils. Nakamura. 
* Kaliella okiensis Pils & Hir. Nakamura. 

Ena reiniana (Kob.) var., shaped like vgoensis. Nishinoshima. 


Carychium nipponense Pils. Saigo. 

The descriptions of new species and subspecies follow: 


Diplommatina okiensis n. sp. 

The lower half of the shell, comprising two whorls, is cylindric, 
the upper half tapering in a rather long cone with straight sides. 
Adult shells are generally red-brown, rarely whitish, but the young 
are nearly white. There are nearly 7 moderately convex whorls, 
the penultimate, seen from the back, being the largest. The last 
whorl ascends in front, and has a strong, rather sharp ridge or col- 
lar a short distance behind the peristome, and preceded by a rather 
wide opaque whitish streak. The constriction is slight and median 
in front. The whole shell, after the smooth apex, has a sculpture 
of very fine, delicate, oblique, moderately close thread-striae. The 
aperture is nearly circular, the parietal callus having a slightly 
thickened edge, reaching up nearly to the suture. Peristome well 
reflexed, usually very slightly angular at the foot of the columella. 
Palatal plica very short, half covered by the parietal callus. Colu- 
mellar tooth moderately strong, deeply placed, thin but rather high 
within. Internal parietal lamella strongly developed. 

Length 4, diam. 2 mm. 

Nakamura, Oki. Types no. 95663 A. N. S. P., from no. 296 c 
of Mr. Hirase's collection. 

This species differs from D. paxillus (Gredler) by its strongly 
developed collar. It is closely related to the common Japanese D. 
collarifera Schm. & Bttg., but that species has a much longer palatal 
plica, a decidedly thicker and stronger columellar lamella inside, 
and only a weak internal parietal lamella. 

Trishoplita cretacea pergranosa n. subsp. 

The shell is depressed-conic with obtusely subangular periphery, 
thin, whitish corneous, with a broad brown band on the base, ex- 
tending from just below the periphery nearly to the umbilicus, and 
a narrow brown band above the periphery, ascending the spire above 
the suture. The surface has a minute sculpture of fine, somewhat 
waved or irregular strioe, which are minutely and very elegantly 
granulose ; no distinct spiral lines. 

Alt. 8.3, diam. 13.3 mm.; whorls 5^. 

Nishinoshima, Oki. Types no. 95840 A. N. S. P., from no. 
1575 of Mr. Hirase's collection. 

This snail, of which only 7 examples were taken, is most nearly 
related to T. c. bipartita of Nagato province, which is less depressed, 


less angular, and has no band above the periphery. The minute 
and very beautiful granulation is somewhat variable. 

Ganesella myomphala euomphala n. subsp. 

The shell is more depressed than myomphala, with the umbilicus 
open, though partially arched over by the dilated columellar lip, 
which, however, is not in the least impressed in the axial region. 
The form is much less depressed than G. m. omphalodes. 

Alt. 24, diam. 36 mm.; whorls 6^. 

Alt. 23.5, diam. 35 mm.; whorls 6|. 

Alt. 22.5, diam. 31 mm.; whorls 6^. 

Nakamura, Oki. Cotypes No. 95835, A. N. S. P., from No. 1560 
of Mr. Hirase's collection. 

A smaller form of this subspecies was taken in small numbers (10 
individuals) on Chiburijima, Oki. Two measure : 

Alt. 18.2, diam. 24.5 mm.; whorls 6. 

Alt, 17, diam. 23 mm.; whorls 6. 

Ganesella fer rug inea okiensis n. subsp. 

The shell is much elevated, bullet-shaped, the outlines of the spire 
strongly convex; narrowly, obliquely umbilicate; rich chestnut-brown, 
encircled with a narrow yellow band at the periphery and ascending 
the spire above the suture ; Mirface nearly lusterless, rather weakly 
marked with growth-wrinkles and minute spiral lines, some inter- 
mediate whorls of the spire punctate or subpapillose. Whorls con- 
vex, the last rounded periferally, convex beneath. Aperture very 
oblique, the upper and columellar margins subparallel; baso-columellar 
margin straightened, thickened within, the edge reflexed. 

Alt. 19.5, diam. 17 mm.; whorls 6^. 

AH. 17, diam. 16.2 mm.; whorls 6|. 

Alt. 17, diam. 15.5 mm.; whorls 6. 

Nakamura, Oki. Types No. 95820, A. N. S. P., from No. 1564 
of Mr. Hirase's collection. 

This form is well distinguished by its high contour. It may prove 
to be specifically distinct, but for the present we prefer to attach it 
to the widely distributed G. ferruginea of the main island. 

Chloritis tosanus okiensis, n. subsp. 

Umbilicus wider than in G. tosanus, contained six times in the 
diameter of the shell. Hairs of the surface not so close. 

Alt. 8.8, diam. 16.8, width of umbilicus 2.8 mm. 


Nakamura, Oki. Types No. 95821, A. N. S. P., from No. 1567 
of Mr. Hirase's collection. 

Kaliella okiensis, n. sp. 

The shell is perforate, conic, amber-colored, glossy, the spire conic 
with slightly convex outlines, perifery thread-carinate, the base 
convex. The surface is smoothish, above, with faint growth-lines, 
and minute radial striae just below the suture on the intermediate 
whorls; the base having faint spirals, not close together. Whorls 6, 
convex, slowly increasing, the last having a narrow, thread-like 
periferal keel. Aperture semilunar, rather narrow, the peristome 
rather broadly dilated near the axial insertion. 

Alt. 2.7, diam. 3.6, mm. 

Nakamura, Oki. Types No. 95849 A. N. S. P., from No. 1568 
of Mr. Hirase's collection. Also No. 1569. 

This species stands near K. sororcula, but it differs in having the 
whorls crenulated below the suture on the spire. 




Shell with the dorsal and ventral sides sharply carinated, the spire 
and umbilicus typically forming deep, cone-like depressions ; sculp- 
ture cf strong growth-lines and distinct spiral lines, as in bicarinatus 
striatus ; aperture strongly auriculate, the upper and lower extremi- 
ties forming a strikingly developed V-shape. 

Height 8.00, breadth 14.00; aperture height 10.00, breadth 5.50 

Height 8.00, breadth 13.00 ; aperture height 9.00, breadth 5.00 mm. 

Habitat : Portage Lake, on Fish River, Aroostook County, Maine. 
(Collected by O. O. Nylander; types in collection of Chicago 
Academy of Sciences.) 

This peculiar variety may be known by the strong keels on the 
shoulder and base and by the V shaped upper and lower margins of 
the aperture, which produce a notably auriculate aspect. It was at 
first thought to be a form of Walker's variety major, but a compari- 
son with specimens of the latter received t'rom the author shows that 
the two are distinct varieties. 




Tagolanda or Tangulandang is a small island between Celebes and 
Mindanao, about fifty miles from the N. E. extremity of the former, 
and between that and Sangi (Sangir). So far as I know, nothing 
has been known of its mollusks. A collector for Mr. Walter F. 
Webb, of Rochester, N. Y., took a number of land shells there, 
which show that the fauna has relations with both Celebes and Sangi. 
The list follows. 

Cyclotus politus Sowerby. 

Found also in Celebes, Flores, Timor and some other islands of 
the same region, but not north of Tagolauda. 
Leptopoma tagolandense n. sp. PL IV, figs. 1, 2. 

A species of the group of L. manadense. The shell is narrowly 
umbilicate, acutely carinate, slightly wider than high ; typically 
corneous-whitish densely speckled with brown and encircled with a 
dark chestnut band below the periphery, but sometimes wanting this 
band. The brown spots are larger and rather regularly spaced just 
above the periphery and below the suture; the first three whorls are 
uniform yellowish-corneous or brown. Whorls 5i, all rather strongly 
convex, the last having an acute, projecting periferal keel, below 
which it is moderately convex. The first half-whorl is smooth; then 
5 to 7 fine spiral threads begin. On the fourth whorl interstitial 
spiral strise appear, continuing to the end, the primary spirals re- 
taining their prominence as subequally spaced cords among the fine 
spiral strise of the later whorls. The base is finely striate the striae 
slightly unequal. Aperture oblique, sub-circular; lip white, not 
continuous, the upper margin expanded, basal margin reflexed; 
columellar circular dilated. Alt. 14, diam. 15 mm.; width of aper- 
ture 8 mm. 

This species differs from L. menadense in sculpture. It stands 
near L. vexillum, well figured by the Sarasins, but the last whorl is 
more convex above than below the keel (whereas vexillum is more 
convex below), and there are fewer major spiral cords, 5 to 7 on the 
upper surface of the last whorl, while vexillum has 10. 

There is also a form without brown markings, the shell bluish- 
white, yellowish-white at the spire. This may be called var. immac- 
ulata. Some individuals have a dark chestnut band below the keel. 


Obba maryinala (Miill.). 

Elsewhere found widely distributed in the Philippines. The var. 
sororcula Marts, in Celebes. 
Helicostyla hucophthalma tagolandensis n. subsp. PI. IV, figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Shell smaller than hucophthalma, slightl}' more solid, the lip more 
broadly expanded ; bluish-white with many light green revolving 
bands and lines on the last half or more of the last whorl. Whorls 
only 3^. 

Alt. 21, diam. 32 to 35.5 mm. 

H. hucophthalma Pfr. was thought at first to be from Celebes, but 
the locality Great Sangi Island was pointed out by Ancey several 
years ago, and the Sarasins collected it there, and have figured the 
snail laying its eggs in a folded leaf, in their great work on Celebes 
(p. 204, plate 27). Pfeiffer described and figured hucophthalma, as 
covered with a thin tawny cuticle, irregularly streaked, and having 
two narrow brown bands above, two wider ones on the base ; and it 
measured, alt. 21-22, diam. 42 mm., whorls nearly 4. His descrip- 
tion and figures are reproduced in Manual of Conchology, Vol. VII, 
p. 113, pi. 26, f. 16, 17. 

The specimens I have seen from Great Sangi agree better with 
those described by Sarasins. The spire is transparent-white, as 
usual ; the last whorl is covered with a chestnut or wood-brown or 
olive-brown cuticle, which is darkest behind the lip, and fades out 
to almost white at the beginning of the whorl. This cuticle is 
obscurely streaked with darker, and shows traces of darker spiral 
bands and lines. Around the axis there is a paler area. In another 
shell, a ground similar to that just described is cut into bands above 
the periphery by white spiral zones, and there is a large white axial 
area. These shells are figured, plate IV, figs. 3, 4. They measure 
39 to 41 mm. in diameter. H. hucophthalma evidently belongs to 
the subgenus Corasia, not to Crystallopsis. 

It is possible that Pfeiffer's types were from another island of the 
same group, or they may have been merely from another colony on 
Great Sangi. Such local color-races often exist in close proximity. 
Xesta cincta (Lea). 

Also found in Celebes, in several varieties. 



CLAMS. By Harold Sellers Colton (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
1908). The behavior of specimens kept captive in a salt-water 
aquarium in the vivarium of the University of Pennsylvania has 
been studied by Mr. Colton. His observations contradict the preva- 
lent impressions as to the feeding of conchs, and should lead to 
further work on the subject. We quote part of Mr. Colton's ob- 
servations on Fulgur (Sycotypus) canah'culatum : "The Sycotyput 


had not been fed for a month or so .... It attacked one of the 
oysters five minutes after I placed them with it. . . . The Sycotypus 
crawled on top of the oyster, which closed its valves. The conch 
waited two minutes when the oyster opened its valves. Rotating 
its shell on the axis of the columella through an angle of 70, it 
thrust its own shell between the valves of the oyster and introduced 
its proboscis between the shells. Forty minutes later it left the 
empty shell. 

" Sycotypus does not wedge the shells of Mya apart, because it 
can get at the soft parts without doing so, since the valves gap 
slightly. To test this I introduced an oyster that had had three- 
quarters of an inch broken from the margins of both valves on the 
end away from the hinge so that the valves appeared to gap. I 
found that Sycotopus attacked this one in the same manner as it 
attacked Mya and did not wedge the shells apart. 

" Fulgur eating Venus is a much more complicated case. The 
conch (Fulgur perversa or F. carica) grasps the Venus in the hollow 
of its foot, bringing the margin of the Venus shell against its own 
shell margin. By contracting the columellar muscle it forces the 
margins of the shells together, which results in a small fragment 
being chipped from the shell of Venus. This is repeated many times 
and, finally, the crack between the valves is enlarged to a width of 
3 mm. or more. The proboscis is normally about 5 mm. to 8 mm. 
in diameter. There are three ways in which it may get at the 
animal. First, it may flatten out its proboscis so that it will go 
through the crack; secondly, it may pour in a secretion between the 
valves which kills the clam, and, thirdly, it may wedge its shell 
between the valves of the Venus. By contracting its columellar 
muscle it may actually wedge the valves apart. Venus never opens 
its valves of itself when it is in the grasp of a Fulgur, while Ostrea, 
after the first shock, opens wide its valves as if no danger was near. 

" Fulgur and Sycotypus often break their own shell when opening 
oysters and clams, and this accounts no doubt for the irregular 
growth-lines seen on their shells. 

" This method of inserting the margin of a gasteropod between the 
valves of a Lamellibranch has been noticed before. Francois (1890) 
briefly reports that Murex fortispina has a special tooth on the mar- 
gin of its aperture for the purpose of inserting between the valves of 
Area. It may be that this manner of attacking the soft parts of 
bivalves is a very common habit of Piosobranch mollusks." 

The several stages in the processes described are fully illustrated. 


The scarcity of " copy " during the summer months has caused 
us to issue a single number for August and September. The usual 
number of pages for the year will be made up by enlarging a future 
number. Plate IV. will appear next month. 





VOL. XXII. OCTOBER, 19O8. No. 6. 



During 1907 I made some studies and observations on the mor- 
phology of some of our land snails, and especially on the foot. The 
results were very incomplete and fragmentary ; but the notes re- 
specting the sole and '* locomotive disk " appear to be of some inter- 
est, and a summary of them is here given. 

Of about thirty-seven species, I had occasion to observe living 
animals, and of some of them preserved specimens could be com- 
pared. The results obtained are somewhat at variance with those 
published by other conchologists, which appear to have been ob- 
tained mainly from preserved material. 

It may be mentioned that a piece of thin glass is conveniently 
used to let the snails creep on. In this way, the sole can not only 
be seen with the naked eye, but lenses and even strong doublets can 
be used, and the foot seen in both reflected and transmitted light. 
If kept on a slide, upside down, minute snails can be examined and 
observed under a low-power microscope. It is recommended to 
fasten a few small slips or narrow strips of glass on the glass plate, 
best a pair of them close together, in order to observe the shape and 
motions of (he sole when detached from the even surface, while a 
snail creeps over these obstacles. 

The majority of the snails showed locomotive waves on the under 
surface of the foot while creeping. On about one-third, none could 
be seen. The waves proceed from the posterior end, or from near 


the same, following each other towards the anterior, but in some 
instances do not reach the latter. The number of simultaneous 
waves is various in the several species, genera and groups, but rather 
constant in one species ; they also vary in extent, and may be faster 
or slower, regular or irregular, very distinct to more or less obscure. 
In most species, they are confined to a median zone of the sole, nar- 
rower or wider, corresponding with the so-called locomotive disk. 
In some species, resp. groups, that disk is marked off from the 
marginal zones by a more or less marked line, more or less distinct 
in alcoholic specimens. But in some the zones are not noticeable on 
the dead body, while in the living, creeping animal, the waves are 
very distinct and sharply restricted to the median zone. This was 
especially noticed in Polygyra (Stenotrema, Triodopsis + Mesodon}, 
and in Helix hortensis, for which the existence of a disk has been 
denied ; also in some of the Zonitidce, A griolimax, Vertigo, Succinea. 
But there are noticeable differences, as will be stated later on. 

In a few snails, of various groups, the waves extend over the 
whole width of the sole, e. g., in Oircinaria concava Say, Vallonia 
sp., Bifidaria armifera Say. There are no marginal zones in these, 
so far as I was able to see, and it is probable that the muscles of the 
sole are different, comparatively wider than the others. 

In a number of others, no waves could be seen, and no differenti- 
ated longitudinal zones. Such were : part of the Zonitida, such as 
Gastrodonta ligera, Zoniloides nitidus, arboreus, minusculus, all 
Patula, Helicodiscus, Philomycus. Moreover, it appears that at 
least in the Zonitida cited, the sole is of a formation different from 
that of, e. g., the Polygyra;; it seems that an additional layer of 
tissue is superposed on the under surface of the foot. The surface 
has a different appearance, the sole seems thicker, and the double 
lateral lines, above the margins of the foot appear to point to the 
same conclusion. Unfortunately, I had no time to make exact ana- 
tomical and histological examination of these parts, but some 
anatomist may take the subject up. 

It is interesting and significant that such differences are found 
among our Zonitidce. It has been pointed out, long ago, by some 
scientists, that the family includes some widely different forms or 
types, with all similarity of the shells, and even the radula, etc. 
And it will be noted that, e. g., Gastrodonta and Zonitoides, which 
were denoted as showing no locomotive waves, no longitudinal zones, 


and a peculiar formation of the sole, are among those Zonitidte which 
are provided with a dart sack and dart, while Omphalina and 
Hyalina (= Vitrea) are devoid of such. It is possible that the 
formation of the foot may add features of distinction between various 
natural groups of this complex family, and in close connection with 
it may be the presence or absence of a caudal mucus gland (and 
mucus pore). 

Systematic Review. 


Omphalina full 'ginosa Griff. Locomotive waves in a median zone 
which is marked off by slight superficial lines, which are slight fur- 
rows when the sole is detached from a surface. The waves are not 
as distinct as, e. g., Polygyra, and apparently more remote from the 
surface of the sole. 

Hyalina (Vitrea) indetitata Say and radiatula Aid. Waves in a 
median zone, in the anterior or |, indistinct, and mostly not seen 
at all near the posterior end. The surface layer undulating forward 
and backward over [under] each advancing wave. 

Gastrodonta ligera Say. No waves seen. Foot and sole as de- 
scribed above, for this and the four following species. A darkish 
median line is ill-defined and has nothing to do with a locomotive disk. 

Zonitoides nitidus Mull., arboreus Say, minusculus Binn., Euconu- 
lus chersinus Say. No waves ; no zones seen. 


Agriolimax campestris Binn. Waves in narrow median zone, 
following each other in rapid succession, about ten simultaneously, 
while the surface layer of the sole shows forward and backward un- 
dulation with each wave. When the animal proceeds slowly (for a 
snail!), the waves are more or less irregular, even undulating, and 
sometimes no waves can be seen when the animal moves very slowly. 
This has been noticed also on some other snails. 


Circinaria concava Say. The waves extend over the whole width 
of the sole ; the same was seen on a very small, young specimen ; 
no zones seen. 



Polygyra h!rsuta,fraterna, tridentata,fraudulenta, injlecta,palliata, 
mitchelliana, thyroide.s, albolabris and var. minor, profunda : waves 
very distinct, in a rather sharply defined median zone, regularly 
proceeding from the posterior end to the anterior, about 7 or 8 
simultaneously in hirsuta andfraterna, 10 to 12 in the large species. 
Marginal zones with fine radiating lines. 

It may be noted here, in a general way, that the number of waves 
is easily over-estimated, and it is somewhat difficult to count them, 
if more than two to four. 

Helix (Tachea) hortensis Mull. Zones plainly visible! the mar- 
ginal areas rather narrow; waves, in the median, distinct. 

VaUonia pulchella, excentrica, costata : no zones seen ; waves 
extending over the whole width of the sole, rather fast, about four 
simultaneously. The waves can be seen in lateral view, in trans- 
mitted light. 

NOTE. There is a possibility, however, that in these and other 
minute snails, narrow marginal zones exist and have been over- 
looked, to which the waves are transmitted. 


Patula solitaria, alternata, perspectiva, striatella, Helicodiscus 
lineatus Say : no zones seen, and no waves. It seems that the for- 
mation and texture of the sole are rather different from those of 
Polygyra, and more like those of Gastrodonta and Zonitoides. 


Philomycus carolinensis Bosc., and another species which is prob- 
ably distinct : no zones, and no waves seen. 


Bifidaria armifera Say. No zones seen ; waves extending over 
the whole width of the sole, about four simultaneously, rather irreg- 
ular, and often disappearing before reaching the anterior end, and 
apparently commencing anywhere, also stopping and quasi rebound- 
ing anywhere ; in short, more irregular than in any other species. 
This seems to be concordant with the jerky motion of the animal. 
Vertigo ovata Say. Sole with three zones, the median one widen- 


ing towards the anterior end so that the marginals disappear. 
Waves distinct, in the median zone, two to three simultaneously. 
Vertigo tridentata Wolf. Waves seen ; other details in doubt. 


Succinea avara Say. Sole with three zones ; waves in the 
median, 3-4, rapidly moving forward, each one drawing along parts 
of the marginals. The surface layer moves forward and backward, 
undulating, with every wave passing. When part of the foot is 
detached from its support, the waves can be seen there proceeding 
on the more or less contracted and folded sole. 

S. retusa Lea. Three zones, median one with 4-5 waves. 



It seems odd that a species so widely distributed, and fairly 
abundant, should have escaped the eyes of New England collectors 
so long. Yet its dwelling-place is peculiar. A word as to where it 
occurs may be of interest. It was first noticed by the writer at a 
spot where a brook enters the marsh at Bran ford, Conn. The site 
is probably three miles inland from Long Island Sound, and the 
water at this spot must be fresh. Later I found it more abundant 
on vegetable matter in a ditch in the marsh near the railroad in 
Branford and a mile nearer the sound. The waters here would be 
brackish. I have not seen the locality where Mr. Owen Bryant 
found it at Cohasset. Last summer I located it in a pot hole in the 
marsh at Wareham, Mass. This locality showed it in a pot hole 
without an outlet. I have not seen it in such a place elsewhere. 
The locality mentioned in my last article in the NAUTILUS (vol. 
XXI, p. 75) where my daughter found it at East Wareham, was 
among flags near the border of the Agawam river. The character 
of the water may be understood from the fact that I was in mid- 
stream examining Unio complanatus when she found P. salsa in the 
same river. Last winter I took up a residence in Danvers, Mass., 
and have found P. salsa here. Two localities reveal it ; both are 
spots where the water ebbs and flows, and not closed pot holes- 


Danvers lies back of Salem and Beverly at the headwaters of a 
branching bay. A few days ago I made a trip to Plum Island. 
Leaving the train at Rowley, I found P. salsa in a small ditch close 
to the railroad station. A half-mile further down Litorinella minuta 
was abundant in closed pot holes, but P. salsa not there. I do not 
recall finding the two in company, yet they are often near neighbors. 
We now have a distribution of this species from the New Haven area 
in Conn., to Rowley, Mass., just north of Cape Ann, and very near 
the New Hampshire line. 



Caecum Johnsoni n. sp. 

Shell minute, tusk-shaped, slightly tapering, lightly curved. 2^ 
mm. in length, ^ to f of a millimeter in diameter. Apex plug pro- 
trudes in a dome shape. Aperture circular, end of the tube at the 
apex is at right angles to the longer axis of the cylinder. Aperture 
end at an angle, sloping towards the convex side, color dull white to 
horn color, surface marked by lines of growth, but not ribbed. 

Dredged at Woods Hole, Mass., on gravel bottom in 2 to 3 
fathoms. Easily mistaken for C. pulchellum. In size, color and form 
it resembles that species but lacks the ribs, and the dome-shaped plug 
in the apex is not seen in pulchellum. Types in Winkley collection. 

It gives me much pleasure to name this shell for one who has 
shown himself a lover of the science, and a friend to his fellow- 
workers, Mr. C. W. Johnson, of the Boston Society of Natural 



About 15 miles north of Copenhagen on the beautiful coast of the 
Sound stands the pretty village of Rungsted, where many well-to-do 
people from Copenhagen have their summer villas. Between 
Rungsted and Horsholm (German Hirschholm) and a mile to the 


west, where King Christian VI erected a castle, we find a woods 
called " Polehaven." It was formerly used as a park for the now 
demolished castle. In the edge of the woods opposite the railway 
station of Rungsted and in the meadow between the woods and 
Rungsted I found the species of mollusks mentioned below. My 
friend Mr. Niels Petersen has assisted me in collecting these. 

Limax maximus Linne, is very rare. I have also found some 
other species of Limax, but up to now I have not been able to 
determine them. 

Vitrina peliucida Mu'ller, is very common. 

Arion empiricorum Ferussac is found over the whole place. 

Besides Polita cellaria Mu'ller, some other species of Hyalina as 
Conulas fulvus Miiller are found at both localities. 

Punctum pygmaeum Drapar- Tachea h. v. fascis-transparenti 
naud. bus (= v. albina). 

Patula rotundata Mu'ller. Helicogena pomatia Linne. 

Vallonia pidchella Mu'ller. Clausiliastra laminata Montagu. 

Vallonia costata Miiller. Clausiliastra L v. granulata Zieg- 

Trichia hispida Linne. ler. 

Monacha incarnata Miiller. Pirostoma bidentata Strom. 

Eulota fruticum Miiller. Pirostoma b. v. septentrionalis A. 

Eulota f. v.fasciata Moq. Tand. Schmidt. 

Eulota f. v. alba-unifasciata Hesp. Pirostoma plicatula Draparnaud. 

Eulota f. v. abina. Pirostoma pumila Ziegler. 

Arianta arbustorum Linne. Napaeus obscurus Miiller. 

Arianta a. v.trochoidalisHoffia.en. Vertigo antivertigo Miiller. 

Arianta a. v. roseolabiata Schlesch Vertigo pusilla Mu'ller. 
nov. var. 1 Vertigo angustior Jeffreys. 

Arianta a.f. scalaris. One spe- Cochlicopa lubrica Miiller. 
cimen only. Succinea putris Linne. 

Tachea nemoralis Linne. 2 Succinea p. v. albina. 

Tachea n. f. major. Succinea pfeifferi Rossmassler. 

Tachea horttnsis Miiller. Succinea p. v. albina. 

Tachea h. v. roseolabiata. Carychium minimum Mu'lW. 

1 The mouth brim is rose-colored as Tachea hortensis Miiller var. roseolabiata 

3 Mr. Niels Petersen has given me some specimens found at Rungsted, the 
ribs of which are so marked that they look as if they belonged to Tachea 
austriaca Miihlfeldt. 




A few remarks on this subject in addition to the writer's notes in 
the NAUTILUS for May, 1901, may not be amiss. The Wabash 
river was visited in August of the present year, at several places in 
Posy county, Indiana. The writer was determined to find the form 
described by Dr. Lea under the above name if it still existed. 

On the " Chains " where a stream of water passed with consider- 
able current, the young Angitrema armigera were in large numbers 
on the under side of the rocks. Here the Meseschiza form was 
found quite plentiful, and some three hundred specimens were taken. 
It is a characteristic lot of young Angitrema armigera, with the ex- 
ception of the notch in the lip, showing all the variations of color 
markings. The notch varies as to development and location. Of 
the specimens taken, twenty-five per cent, or more have the notch at 
the perifery ; in many of these a line of lighter color is left to mark 
the former positions of the notch, this line does not precede the notch 
on any other part of the shell. 

These notched forms were only found where the water had a 
strong current ; and it was not confined entirely to Angitrema 
armigera) for specimens of Pleurocera and Vivipara siibpurpurea 
were taken in the same situation with the same peculiar notch. 

Pyrgulopsis wabashensis was found on water plants in quiet water, 
on moss-covered rocks and timbers where there was some current at 
the water's edge, and at the old dam near New Harmony they were 
found in mid-stream, on rocks covered with a little moss and 



BlTTIUM HILOENSE n. Sp. Fig. 1. 

The shell has the usual oblong-turrite shape, and is uniform yel- 
lowish gray-white except the swollen, slightly exserted first whorl, 



which is opaque white and smooth. Subsequent whorls are flattened 
but separated by a deep suture, the earlier ones having two spiral 
beaded cords. At the end of the first 3^ to 4 whorls a third spiral 
cord appears. The last whorl is rounded periferally, and has about 
10 spiral cords, separated by spaces of about their own width ; the 
upper 5 or 6 are nodose at the intersections of low, narrow, vertical 
folds, which do not extend below the perifery. The last whorl has 
a low, rounded, rather massive varix behind the outer lip. Aperture 
oval, produced in a short, deep channel at the base. 

Length 3.34, diam. 1.39 mm.; whorls 6^. 

Hilo, Hawaii. Types no. 95906 A. N. S. P., collected by Mr. 
D. Thaanum. 

This tiny Bittium is somewhat related to B. leucocephalum Wat- 

FIG. 1. 

FIG. 2. 

FIG. 3. 

son, described from the reef at Honolulu, from which it differs in 
many details of shape and sculpture. Watson's type is evidently an 
immature shell, smaller than B. hiloense, but it has 8 whorls, while 
hiloense has but 6^. 

Torinia discoidea sterkii n. subsp. Fig. 2. 

The shell is depressed, biconvex with flat perifery, widely umbili- 
cate, the width of umbilicus contained 2.6 times in that of the shell. 


First whorl is smooth, convex and bicolored, a spiral deep reddish- 
brown band half the width of the whorl revolving below the suture ; 
on the second whorl this band spreads, becomes diluted, and finally 
disappears. Last whorl grayish, with white and brown spots along 
the periferal beaded cords. The last whorl has 5 beaded spiral 
cords above, the first and fifth larger ; a beaded spiral lies between 
the two cords at the periferal angles. The base has 7 beaded spirals, 
the outer one and three inner larger than the others. Suture chan- 
neled. Alt. 2.3, diam. 4.6 mm. 

Waikiki Beach, Honolulu, H. I. (F. Stearns). Types in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, No. 


Differs from typical T. discoidea Pease in having one more spiral 
row of beads on the upper surface of the whorls and in having a 
small spiral row of beads between the two peripheral larger rows. 
It is also darker in color. The type specimens were picked from 
shell-sand by Dr. V. Sterki, in whose honor it is named. The same 
form was taken at the Marquesas Islands by C. D. Voy. 


The shell is very slender, turrite, slowly tapering, a little more 
rapidly so near the summit; somewhat translucent white. One 
nuclear whorl is planorboid, its axis not quite at a right angle with 
that of the shell, but a little oblique. Post-nuclear whorls are 
sculptured with rounded ribs, slightly oblique and gently sigmoid, 
equal to the intervals, and extending from suture to suture. On the 
last whorl there are 22 axial ribs ; and the intervals parting them 
stop abruptly a short distance below the periphery, leaving the rest 
of the base smooth. There is no spiral sculpture. The sutures are 
deeply impressed ; whorls evenly convex. The aperture is about 
one-fifth the total length, ovate. Columella nearly straight, some- 
what concave below, gently convex above. 

Length 3.1, diam. 0.82 mm.; post-nuclear whorls 8. 

Hilo, Hawaii. Type no. 95907 A. N. S. P., collected by Mr. D. 


This species differs from the Hawaiian T. decussata Pease by the 

absence of spiral sculpture. 



Those interested in that most fascinating group, the Cephalopoda, 
are quite likely to overlook a recent interesting contribution to our 
knowledge of the natural history of two of the larger species of 
cuttlefish and squid. The reference is to a chapter called (some- 
what misleadingly since largely occupied with an account of the 
Californian octopus Polypus punctatus) "Ten Armed Game," occu- 
pying pp. 49-64 in Charles F. Holder's book " Big Game At Sea" 
(The Outing Publishing Co., 1908). 

The book is an account of sporting experiences written for sports- 
men and by no means pretends to be scientific, but bears internal 
evidence that the author is quite aware not only of the difference be- 
tween imagination and testimony to fact, but of the distinction be- 
tween first and second-hand testimony. In short, one judges that 
he has actually seen and done just about what he says he has 
though he does not purport to state with the accuracy of a trained 
naturalist and if so he has had experiences with giant forms of 
cephalopods most rare to men sufficiently educated to put them 
before the public. 

There are three excellent full-page photographs, two of " giant 
octopi " from California (one "fifteen feet across" i. e., tip to tip 
of spread tentacles the other, size not given, said in text to grow to 
twenty-five or thirty feet), and one of a ''large squid caught at 
Avalon, Santa Catalina Ids.," by the author. The latter picture is 
extraordinary if not absolutely unique. It does not look " faked," 
unless perhaps about the eye, and the animal appears fresh if not 
actually alive, while the detail is clear. Unfortunately no measure- 
ments are given, nor is there any object in the picture to serve as a 
scale, while the text is annoyingly ambiguous. The author states 
that the length of the largest squid actually handled and measured 
by him was fifty feet (of which the long pair of tentacles made 
thirty), but rather implies that this was a Newfoundland specimen, 
presumably of Arckiteuthis princeps which Verrill has so elucidated. 

Squids ranging from seven to eight feet in length are stated to be 
common on the California coast, where they may be watched in 
schools from boats one would think with some slight misgivings if 
the boat were very small. Probably the figure is of one of these, 
though it somehow gives the impression of being larger at all 
events it is self-evidently not an Architeuthis. 


Those interested must read the chapter for themselves and regret 
its shortness and shortcomings, with the hope that the author may 
give students the benefit of a more full and exact account of the re- 
sults of his unusual opportunities in this direction. 

Anyone who has ever studied living squids cannot but delight in 
his simile of the sheet-lightning of a setting thunder-storm for the 
color-play of the chromatophores. At all events it bears the hall- 
mark of genuine observation. F. N. BALCH. 

LOTORIUM FELIPPONEI n. sp. by H. von Ihering, Buenos Aires, 
1908. A new species of the " Triton " pileare group is described 
and figured in this paper, issued as a separate publication. It was 
found at Maldanado, Uruguay, by Dr. Florentine Felippone, of 

ERRATA In the June number, the following corrections should 
be made. Page 15, line 19, for " [now Bergh] " read [non Bergh]. 

P. 16, line 9, for "now" read "non Coryphella bostoniensis 

MRS. GEORGE ANDREWS died at her home, Circle Park, Knox- 
ville, Tenn., on Saturday, September 5th. Many conchologists, 
especially those of us whose activity in the science dates back twenty 
years or more, were friends or correspondents of Mrs. Andrews, and 
will hear of her death with sorrow. A notice of Mrs. Andrews's life 
will follow. 

MR. JAS. H. FERRISS is exploring the mountains of Arizona for 
land shells, ferns, etc., intending to return about the first of No- 

DR. JOHN B. TRASK, a pioneer of science on the West Coast, is 
the subject of an interesting article by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns (Science, 
Aug. 21). Trask went to California in 1850 and was one of the 
little coterie who founded the California Academy of Science. He 
discovered many mollusks, among other scientific labors, Epiphrag- 
mophora traski, and several other species bear his name. 


VOL. XXII. NOVEMBER, 19O8. No. 7. 



In the course of the Albatross dredgings in the Philippines during 
the period in which Dr. Paul Bartsch of the U. S. National Museum 
was attached to the scientific staff of that vessel, a dredging was 
made between the islands of Ticao and Masbate in 600 fathoms. 
Among the objects obtained from this haul (station 5215) was the 
fresh shell of a Solemya, which, compared with the previously known 
species, may be regarded as enormous. Nothing remained of the 
soft parts which had evidently been but recently lost. 

Solemya (Acharax) bartschii n. sp. 

Shell subcylindrical, gaping at the ends and along the base, cov- 
ered with a strong polished black periostracum which extends over 
the margins, being continuous over the dorsal portion between the 
valves and produced beyond the edges of the shelly portion, basally 
about 40, in front about 35, and behind about 15 millimeters. In 
life this produced periostracum, undoubtedly covers and protects the 
portions of the surface of the animal not sheltered by the calcified 
valves ; the margin at the anterior end is not split into strips cor- 
responding lo the radii of the shell as in the large American species 
of the group, but preserves ils continuity and is contracted margin- 
ally so that in life it must closely cover the whole anterior end of the 
animal, in a dome-like manner. Internally the ligament is wholly 


opisthodetic but in front of the beaks the periostracum is produced 
inside the dorsal margin as well as externally. This interior exten- 
sion covers a narrow strip of the thickened dorsal margin of each of 
the valves, leaving about two-thirds of these pseudo-nymphs bare and 
strongly radially grooved and striate, the radii diverging from the 
dorsal margin of the valves slightly in front of the beaks, and doubt- 
less serving to make more efficient the local attachment of the 
periostracum, which is here thickened and expanded. The ligament 
is wide and strong, external, but visible in the gap between the 
valves behind the beaks and supported by heavily calcified nymphs. 
Behind the nymphs the dorsal margin of the shell on each side ex- 
hibits a long and conspicuous indentation. The valves are heavily 
calcified, internally radiately striate, the ventral margin straight, the 
dorsal margin nearly parallel to it except as modified by the nymphs, 
the two valves touching only near the beaks, which are low but 
swollen, the rather narrow dorsal interval between the valves being 
covered by a continuous sheet of the thick periostracum. The 
posterior muscular impression is of moderate size and obliquely 
ovate, the anterior smaller, narrow and rhomboid in shape; the pal- 
lial line is obscure and continuous, situated close to the margin of 
the valves; externally the surface is smooth except for lines of 
growth and a number of shallow, wide, radiating channels which 
proceed from the beaks toward the margin of the valves, where they 
produce a certain amount of undulation. Anteriorly there are eight, 
posteriorly six of these channels, with a median space which has no 
rays, and, on the basal margin of the valves, is about 50 mm. wide. 
The beaks are about 75.0 mm., in front of the posterior end. The 
shelly part of the valves is 191 mm. long (the total length including 
periostracum is about 240 mm.), the height 62 mm. (with periostra- 
cum about 100 mm.), and the estimated diameter of the valves in 
life about 60 mm. 

The perfect condition of this specimen enables us to understand 
the origin and use of the striated and thickened area of the an- 
terior dorsal margin of the values, already noted by me in S. (A.) 
agassizii from the Gulf of Panama. To preserve it in its present 
satisfactory state it will be kept in alcohol. 

With this remarkable specimen was obtained an interesting shell 
of Vesicomya, also without the soft parts, which may be described as 
follows : 


Vesicomya ticaom'ca n. sp. 

Shell ovate, tumid, inequilateral, with the beaks within the anterior 
fourth of the length, low, prosocoelous, tumid, overhanging a large 
cordate lunule, of which the left valve carries a somewhat large por- 
tion ; surface rude, sculptured irregularly and strongly by incre- 
mental lines; periostracum brownish, covering a livid whitish shell; 
ligament rather long, set in a deep, narrow groove; hinge as usual in 
the genus; interior chalky-white except the polished muscular im- 
pressions; pallial line broad, slightly irregular, with a feeble insinu- 
ation below the posterior adductor scars; shell thin, margins entire. 
Lengtli 63, height 45, diameter 30, the beaks behind the anterior 
end 15 mm. The ligament is about 22, and the lunule 14 mm. in 
length. The shell is more tumid and more attenuated in front of 
the beaks than any other described species and exceeds most of them 
in size. 



In 1883, Mr. Henry Hemphill sent a few species of shells from 
Waco, to Dr. W. G. Binney. These specimens are now in the 
Binney collection in the United States National Museum (see Manual 
of American Land Shells, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., No. 28, 1885, 
pp. 477, 485, etc.). I have been unable to find any examples of 
two of the species recorded, i. e., Praticolella griseola Pfr. and 
Vitrea sculptilis Bland. 1 

In Singley's list of Texas Mollusca (Report Geol. Survey of 
Texas, 1893, pp. 299-343) several species of McLennan county 
shells are mentioned. I include Bulimulus d. schiediunus Pfr. 
in my list on this authority, although I have not collected it personally. 

Examples of all of the other species mentioned in this paper have 
been collected by me during the past two years. Future investiga- 
tions will doubtless bring others to light but as local lists of Texas 

1 The records of these two species from Waco are in all probability erroneous ; 
the specimens identified as griseola must be a thin form of P. berlandieriana,&uA 
the supposed V. sculptilis is V. indentata umbilicata. ED. 


Mollusca are exceedingly few and far between, I feel that my list is 
sufficiently complete for publication at this time. 

During the present year, the heavy rises and great floods have 
played havoc with the various species of univalves inhabiting our 
smaller streams. In 1907 a light-colored variety of Planorbis 
tumidus Pfr. was found in Waco Creek in countless thousands but 
in July of the present year repeated visits to the most favorable 
places on this stream failed to result in the finding of a single living 

In April, 1908, I collected a large number of examples of Lymncea 
bulirnoides techella Hald and Physa mexicana conoidea C. & F. in a 
small stream flowing through Lindsey's Hollow. As my time was 
limited, I left the collecting of a still larger series until another time. 
A month later, during the flood, all of the mollusks in the stream 
were washed into the Brazos River. 

On the other hand, the drying-up of most of the smaller water 
courses in the latter part of the summer is also responsible for the 
destruction of many species. In places along Hog Creek, during 
the dry season, I have found thousands of fresh dead shells of Physa 
forsheyi Lea, Planorbis bicarinatus Say and Planorbis tumidus Pfr. 
lying together in one heap. In the same place, on a bed of sand and 
gravel, I have found half-grown living examples of Anodonta im- 
becilis Say. The bed of this stream, in some places, is composed of 
pebbles and small boulders to a depth of 18 or 20 inches, and when 
the naiads are left high and dry it is impossible for them to burrow 
down to the line of moisture. 

At Day's Lake I have found living specimens of a variety of Unio 
tetralasmus Say that must have been out of the water for several 
months. They were half buried in a bank of dry earth about five 
feet above the water line. This Unio is much more tenacious of life 
than our species of Quadrula and Lampsilis, as a very few hours in 
the sun usually suffices to kill them. 

Thanks are due to Mr. Bryant Walker of Detroit who kindly 
identified most of the species on the list. Also to Mr. W. B. 
Marshall, U. S. Natl. Mus. Washington, D. C., and Dr. W. S. 
Strode, Lewistown, 111., to whom the others were referred. 



Helicina orbiculata tropica Jan. 
Praticolella berlandieriana Mor- 


Praticolella griseola Pfr. 
Polygyra dorfeuilliana Lea. 
Polygyra dorfeuilliana sampsoni 


Polygyra mooreana W. G. B. 
Polygyra texasiana Mori can d. 
Polygyra roemeri Pfr. 
Polygyra monodon fraterna Say. 
Bulimulus dealbatus liquabilus 

Bilimulus dealbatus mooreanus 

Bulimulus dealbatus schiedi- 

anus Pfr. 

Strobilops labyrinthica texasi- 
ana P. & F. 

Pupoides marginatus Say. 
Bifidaria armifera Say. 
Bifidaria contracta Say. 
Bifidaria tappaniana C. B. Ad. 
Bifidaria pentodon Say. 
Bifidaria procera cristata P.& F. 
Bifidaria pellucida hordeacella 


Vitrea sculptilis Bland. 
Vitrea indentata Say. 
Vitrea indentata umbilicata 


Vitrea dalliana roemeri P. & F. 
Euconulus fulvus Mull. 
'Euconulus chersinus trochulus 


Zonitoides arboreus Say. 
Zonitoides minusculus Binn. 
Zonitoides singleyanus Pils. 
Limax flavus Linn. 
Philomycus carolinensis Bosc. 

Pyramidula alternata Say. 

Helicodiscus eigenmanni P. & F. 

Punctum pygmoeuni Drap. 

Succinea avara Say. 

Carychium exile II. C. Lea. 

Planorbis bicarinatus Say. 

Planorbis liebmanni Pfr. 

Planorbis parvus Say. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. 

Planorbis tumidus Pfr. 

Physa mexicana Ph. 

Physa mexicana conoidea C.& F. 

Physa forsheyi Lea. 

Physa rhomboidea Crandall. 

Physa osculans Hald. 

Amnicola peracuta P. & W. 

Lymnaea desidiosa Say. (Variety?) 

Lymnaea bulimoides techella Hald. 

Calyculina transversa Say. 

Tritogonia tuberculata Barnes. 

Quadrula forsheyi Lea. 

Quadrula aurea Lea. 

Quadrula pustulosa Lea. (Smooth 

Anodonta imbecilis Say. 

Lampsilis gracilis Barnes. 

Lampsilis purpuratus Lamarck. 

Lampsilis berlandieri Lea. 

Lampsilis berlandieri Lea. (Va- 

Lampsilis anodontoides Say. 

Lampsilis parvus Barnes. 

Lampsilis texasensis Lea. 

Lampsilis ventricosus satur Lea. 

Lampsilis laevissimus Lea. 

Plagiola macrodon Lea. 

Unio tetralasmus Say. 

Unio tetralasmus manubius Say. 

Unio tetralasmus camptodon Say. 



Polygyra mooreana W. G. B. 

Near the gravel pit north of Waco, I found two adult and three 
juvenile specimens of a variety of tins species with a hirsute epi- 
dermis. Three of these were found under a rock lying at the foot of 
gravel bank. A fourth was attached to the under side of a plank 
lying across a spring about three or four yards away. The fifth ex- 
ample was crawling around in the damp grass about a yard from the 
spring. In the living specimen, the hairs are very conspicuous and 
stand straight out from the shell. Living examples of the ordinary 
type were afterwards found on all the surrounding elevations, but 
the hirsute variety seems to be confined to the vicinity of the spring. 

Limax flavus L. 

This species is now common, but must have been introduced 
within the last three years. Prior to that time a great many slugs 
were collected by students of the Biological Department of Baylor 
University. These are now in the University Museum, and all prove 
to be specimens of the native species Philomycus carolinensis Bosc. 
Most of my examples of L.flavus were captured during the spring of 
the present year. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. 

This pond snail is rare. All of the examples I have seen came 
from Day's Lake about five miles notheast of Waco. 
Planorbis tumidus Pfr. 

This species is our most abundant Planorbis. A large, light- 
colored variety was formerly abundant in Waco Creek. A small, 
depressed form is found in Hog Creek in considerable numbers. 
Physa sp. 

Imperfect specimens of an indeterminate Physa were picked out 
of drift material on the Middle Bosque River. The spire was broken 
in all these specimens and while Bryant Walker stated that he was 
certain that they were different from anything that I had sent him 
before, he was unwilling to attempt to name them until he could ex- 
amine more perfect material. 
Lymnsea sp. 

We have at least one other species of Lymncza but of this form only 
juvenile examples, too young for determination, have been collected. 
Quadrula pustulosa Lea. 


A smooth variety of this species is found associated with Quadrula 
aurea Lea. In this variety there are only a few small pustules near 
the umbones and in some specimens even these are lacking. Speci- 
mens identified by F. C. Baker and Bryant Walker. Several pus- 
tulous shells of this species that were supposed to have been collected 
in this county, prove to have come from southern Illinois. 
Lampsilis purpuratus Lamarck (Variety). 

A number of shells from near Mussel Island in the North Bosque 
River were first identified as typical L. purpuratus Lk. Later ex- 
amples of the same type were identified as typical L. bertandieri by 
Dr. W. S. Strode and Mr. Bryant Walker. The last-mentioned 
gentleman found three different forms in a second sending from the 
same locality. These he designates as 
Lampsilis berlandieri Lea. 
Lampsilis berlandieri Lea var. 
Lampsilis purpuratus Lamarck var. 

The variety of L. berlandieri Lk., is very variable in the color of 
the nacre which ranges from white, through pink and salmon, to 
dark purple. These shells were found in the ripples above Mussel 
Island while the examples of the typical form and the specimens of 
L. purpuratus var., were found in a large bed some distance below. 




Partulina winniei n. sp. 

Shell sinistral, subperforate, rather thin, elongately conical, apex 
subacute; surface shining, striated with fine growth lines, and under 
a lens showing very close and delicate decussating spiral striae ; 
nuclear whorls faintly decussated. Color white, striped and mottled 
irregularly with longitudinal dark brown streaks ; apex white. 
Whorls 6, slightly convex, margined above. Aperture oblique, 
oval, purplish-white within. Peristome acute, thickened within, 
columellar margin reflexed. Columella terminating in a slight, 
flexuous, white fold. 

Length 16; diam. 8 mm. 


Habitat, Kahakuloa, West Maui. 

This shell is the Maui counterpart of Part, theodorei, Bald., a 
much larger shell found on the Island of Molokai. 
Named in honor of Miss Winnie of Walluku, Maui. 

Partulina mutabilis, n. sp. 

Shell dextral or sinistral, minutely perforated, somewhat solid, 
acuminately conical, apex subacute ; surface shining, marked with 
delicate incremental striae, under a lens exhibiting very close decus- 
sating, spiral striae ; apical whorls smooth. Color varying from 
pure white to dark fulvous, often variously striped with brown lines 
and bands, some on the base and others spiral. Whorls 6, convex, 
margined above, suture well impressed. Aperture oblique, oval, 
white within, columella margin reflexed. Peristome acute, thick- 
ened within. Columella terminating in a well-developed, flexuous 
white fold. 

Length 16 ; diam. 10 mm. 

Habitat, Waichu Valley, West Maui. 

This shell seems to be the Maui counterpart of Partulina varia- 
bilis, Nc. a larger shell which is found on the neighboring island of 

Laminella duoplicata, n. sp. 

Shell sinistral, sometimes slightly perforated, thin, elongately con- 
ical, apex obtuse ; surface shining, marked with fine growth striae, 
nuclear whorls smooth. Color light yellow, marked with somewhat 
regular black lineations, apex black, whorls six , convex ; suture 
well impressed. Aperture a little oblique, oval, white within. 
Peristome simple, very thin. Columella white, biplicate, the 
terminal plication a thin, oblique lamellar plait, the inner one less 

Length 12 ; diam. 6 mm. 

Habitat, Waichu Valley, West Maui. 

This and the following species are important additions to the 
Laminellae of Maui. The only previously described Maui species of 
this section are Lam. picta, Migh., Lam. alexandri, Nc. and Lam. 
erecta Pse. 

Laminella aspera, n. sp. 

Shell sinistral, minutely perforated, thin, conical, apex obtuse, 


surface exhibiting very coarse and irregular growth striae. Color 
yellow, plain or marked with irregular black lineations, apex black. 
Whorls 6, convex; suture well impressed. Aperture a little oblique, 
sub-rotund, yellowish within. Peristome simple, very thin. Colum- 
ella white, biplicate, not prominent. 

Length 10; diam. 7 mm. 

Habitat, Wailuku valley, West Maui. 

This species is remarkable for the very coarse and irregular growth 
strias exhibited on its surface. 

Cotypes of these species deposited in the Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
will be figured in the next volume of the Manual of Conchology. 



In Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Dec., 1906, I described two small 
species of Lymnaa from the miocene beds of Florissant. In 1907, 
at station 1, I found a much larger species, unfortunately not in the 
best state of preservation. 1 hoped to find more material in 1908, 
but as none was obtained, a description from the original type is now 

Lymncea florissantica, n. sp. 

Length 21 mm.; diameter about 10^; spire short, scarcely over 5 
mm. long, the whorls moderately convex ; body-whorl not very con- 
vex, with coarse, shallow, vertical grooves. In Baker's key in his 
Mollusca of the Chicago Area, it runs nearest to L. palustris, but it 
is not at all like that species. It is in reality a miocene representa- 
tive of L. emarginata. In Mr. O. O. Nylander's series of figures of 
L. emarginata (published by the author in a pamphlet, 1901), 
it closely resembles PI. 1, f. 7, except that it is distinctly more 
slender, and the base is narrower, about as in fig. 8, though the rest 
of the shell is not at all like fig. 8. 

The following table separates the miocene species of Lymncea. 

Spire short and rather obtuse, 
body-whorl large 1 . 


Spire rather or quite long, acute, 
the apex slender 2. 

1. Length over 20 mm., apparently 

related to L. emarginata . . . L. florissantica, n. sp. 
Length 6 mm. or less, perhaps 

related to L. catascopium . . L. scudderi Ckll. 

2. Small species, about 8 mm. long, 

closely related to L. truncatula . L. sieverti Ckll. 
Larger species, over 18 mm. long . 3. 

3. Smaller, aperture about half 

length of shell ; apparently re- 
lated to L. palustris . . . . L. shumardi Meek & Hayden. 
Larger, aperture over half length 
of shell ; apparently related 
to L. stagnalis L. meekii Evans & Shumard. 

L. slmmardi and meekii are from the White R. beds ; the others 
are from Florissant. Lymncza was extraordinarily well developed 
in the Oligocene of Britain. As my memory serves me it seems 
that the minor modern groups were already well marked, arid it may 
be considered probable that the types of L. stagnalis, palustris and 
truncatula, at least, were developed first in the old woi'ld, and reached 
America during the tertiary period. This is also suggested by the 
fact that the older (Laramie and Eocene) American species of 
LymncRa, do not suggest the modern circumpolar groups. 



Among the many specimens received from young collectors for 
determination there are occasionally non-molluscan forms so closely re- 
sembling shells, that they have been mistaken for mollusks ; in fact, 
they have even deceived some of the more experienced concholo- 

In the more primitive Crustacea, including the Phyllopoda, espe- 
cially in the family Estheriidtz and the Gladocera and Ostracoda, the 
carapace is largely developed and forms a broad oval shell covering 


entirely or most of the body, and divided into right and left halves, 
and hinged together on the dorsal line, thus giving the appearance 
of a bivalve mollusk. 

Some of the insects also afford interesting examples. The larvae 
of several species of caddice-flies, including the genus Helicopsyche, 
make spiral cases in which they live clinging to the rocks and 
stones in rapidly flowing streams. The little spiral cases composed of 
grains of sand, fastened together with silken threads resemble so 
closely the form of a Trochus or Valvata that Swainson (Treatise on 
Malacology, p. 353, f. 113, 1840), described one as the Thelidomus 
braziliensis, placing it in the family Trochidae, sub-family Rotellina. 
Dr. Isaac Lea (Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., iv, 104, pi. xv, f. 33, 1830), 
described a similar larva case as Valvata arenifera. 

In the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, xxi, p. 1, 1884, Robert 
McLachlan describes and figures an " extraordinary heliciform 
lepidopterous larva case from East Africa." These closely resem- 
ble a high-spired Helix or Vivipara, both sinistral and dextral. 
The larva case of an allied species of Southern Europe, Psyche 
(Cochloplanes) helix is also figured, having the form of a small 
irregular helicoid shell. Larvae of the genus Microdon of the dip- 
terous family Syrphidce have twice been described as land mollusks. 

Numerous worm tubes of the family Serpulidce formed by 
species of Ditrupa and Pomatoceras have frequently been described 
as Dentalium (see Pilsbry and Sharp, Manual Conch., xvii, 240). 


CAUGHT IN A LIVING TRAP. In the window of a Salem, Mass., 
store may be seen a unique sight, that of a kingfisher held tightly 
in the grip of a mussel. The story is this : 

This forenoon patrolman Michael J. Little while crossing Beverly 
bridge, saw the bird fluttering on the flats, and he asked a fisher- 
man to investigate. The latter went to the spot and there found the 
bird drowned. 

It had swooped down and poked its bill into the open shell of a 
mussel, which suddenly closed on the bill of the bird. There the 
the two remained, until the incoming tide drowned the bird. Hun- 
dreds have viewed the singular sight today. (Boston Globe). 


MARTYN'S UNIVERSAL CONCHOLOGT In the course of his very 
instructive paper on " Thomas Martyn and the Universal Concholo- 
gist," in the Proc. U. S. N. M., xxix, 1905, Dr. William H. Dall 
writes as follows (p. 425), " I am not aware of any other copies of the 
" Universal Conchologist " in America than the one I have described 
[a copy in the U. S. National Museum comprising the first eighty 
plates] and a similar copy in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia. Later in his " Supplementary Notes, etc.," in the 
same Proceedings, vol. xxxiii, 1907, p. 185, Dr. Dall describes a 
third copy in the possession of Mr. John B. Henderson, Jr., of Wash- 
ington, likewise consisting of eighty plates, " elegantly bound." 

It may be of interest to readers of THE NAUTILUS, especially those 
residing on the Pacific Coast, to know that there is a fourth copy of 
this rare work in the library of the Leland Stanford Junior University. 
This copy comprises all four volumes of the work, including beautiful 
impressions of the entire 161 plates, and is complete save for the ex- 
planatory table for the plates of the third volume. The series was 
the gift of Mr. Timothy Hopkins, and in this case, also, each volume 
is " elegantly bound." A copy of the prospectus of the work, simi- 
lar to the one described by Dr. Dall is laid into the first volume. 
Beyond this the copy agrees very well with those already described 
by Dr. Dall. S. S. BERRY. 

ata, described as new by Mr. Schlesh in NAUTILUS, October, p. 55, 
is var. roseolabiata Roberts, described from the British Islands many 
years ago. T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

MR. J. H. FERRISS, who has been getting snails, ferns and health 
in the Chiricahua range, Arizona, expects to return about Novem- 
ber 15th. He has not yet turned up the multicornis a shell re- 
ported to be as big as a tin-cup, with horns but he has found many 

other good things. 







No. 8. 




The shell is perforate, thin, cream-white (the specimens being 
fossil). Spire straightly conic, the apex rather obtuse. First 1^ 
whorls white, smooth and convex; following whorls are flattened, 
finely, rather weakly and irregularly 
striate radially, the base being irreg- 
ularly radially striate, with fine micro- 
scopic engraved spiral lines. Whorls 
5^, very slowly widening, the last 
acutely carinate, this carina showing 
immediately above the suture as a 
narrow seam. The base is convex. 
The aperture is narrow, truncate at the ends, basal and parietal 
margins parallel. Columellar margin is short, subvertical, with the 
edge narrowly expanded. 

Alt. 2.87 ; diam. 4.84 mm. 

Palihoukapapa, Hawaii, fossil. Type No. 95779 A. N. S. P., 
from No. 4730 of Mr. D. Thaanum's collection. 

Kaliella subtilissima (Gld.) and K. konaensis Sykes are both less 
elevated species, otherwise related. Named for the discoverer of the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

FIG. 1. 




KELLIA INTERSTRIATA n. sp. PL v, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell orbicular, slightly inequilateral, very much the shape of a 
tumid Diplodonta, surface smooth except in the medial part where it 
is distinctly striated. These striae are rather coarse, extending to 
the basal margin, but they stop at the umbo. Beaks rounded, fairly 
prominent, pointing inward, and terminate directly above one of the 
semi-laterals ; no lunule. Dentition normal. Length, breadth and 
thickness about 5 mm. 

LOCALITY. Enterprise, Miss. Top of Burrstone. 

REMARKS : This shell has the general shape and outline of K. 
suborbicularis, Mont., also a similar dentition. It is peculiar in 
carrying the medial striations. 

Kellia prima Aldr. is a Bornia according to Prof. W. H. Dall. 

CANCELLARIA ? SOTOENSIS n. sp. PI. v. fig. 3. 

Shell small, whorls about seven, the first two and a half embryonic 
and smooth, the cancellation beginning on the second half of the 
third whorl : the remaining whorls strongly cancellated, the body 
whorl contains 12 spiral lines, while the longitudinals are nearly 
three times as many ; slightly nodular at the intersection points, 
suture very deep. Whorls strongly rounded. Base somewhat 
rounded. Aperture oblong, outer lip denticulated within, inner lip 
rather twisted, and carrying a small fold near the base. Umbilicus 
not entirely closed. 

Length 8 mm. ; width body whorl 3 mm. 

LOCALITY. De Soto, Miss. Claibornian. 

REMARKS : This little shell is more slender in shape than the 
drawing shows, and the suture is much more deeply impressed. It 
has somewhat the aspect of a Scala. 

CORBULA CLARKEANA n. sp. PI. V, figs. 4, 5. 

Shell small, medium thickness, valves moderately inflated. Beaks 
not very prominent, polished, a groove running from beaks to base in 
the largest specimens, nearly in the middle of the shell. Valves 
marked with a few impressed lines of growth wide apart ; the outer 


surface having a polished look ; smooth internally, cardinal tooth 
large, projecting. 

Lon. 3 mm. ; alt. 3 mm. 

LOCALITY. Wood's Bluff, Ala. 

REMARKS : This little shell differs from any Corbula known to 
the writer by its polished appearance, and its few impressed lines, 
rare. One small valve does not have any depression running from 
beak to base, but is quite regularly rounded. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) LIGNITIFERA n. sp. PI. v, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell small, thin, extremities rounded, moderately convex, beaks 
small and flattened ; surface marked by many radial riblets crossed by 
irregularly spaced lines of growth ; a depressed area running from 
beaks to base nearly central ; valves smooth internally, but showing 
faint lines corresponding to some of the riblets. Hinge line long, 
slightly curved ; the hinge carries four close-set teeth anteriorly, 
next a short vacant space, and then ten to thirteen small teeth, 
larger and more nearly parallel to the hinge line as they approach 
the posterior. 

Lon. 5 mm. ; alt. 3 mm. 

LOCALITY. Six miles east of Thomasville, Ala., Wood's Bluff 


Shell small, thin, whorls five rapidly enlarging, apex somewhat 
twisted ; the first two whorls smooth, the others covered with very 
numerous fine raised lines which become coarser on the body whorl. 
Aperture oblong, nearly twice as long as broad ; outer lip slightly 
thickened ; umbilicus channeled, and slightly open. 

Lon. 6^ mm.; diam. 4 mm. 

LOCALITY. De Soto, Miss., Claibornian. 

REMARKS : This little shell has very much the form of a small 
Succinea, and resembles in miniature the living forms of the subgenus. 


Shell small, rather rotund, surface with numerous rounded ribs, 
about nineteen in the type; they are granulated under a glass, and 
rather scabrous between the ribs, especially on the anterior. Pos- 
terior slope slightly angulated ; basal margin crenulated. The riba 


also show through the body of the shell. Beak small and smooth, 
the cardinal tooth strongly projecting. 
Lon. 2^ mm.; alt. 2^ mm. 
LOCALITY. Wood's Bluff, Ala. 

REMARKS : This species is mentioned by Prof. Ball as Vertieor- 
dia sp. indet. The description is made from a good specimen found 
by the writer. The shell is rather small for even this genus. 

fig. 11. 

The specimen here figured differs from the typical form by having 
much more numerous raised lines with shallower interspaces. The 
spire is higher and the shell more slender. The Acteon found by me 
at Wood's Bluff is different from the form figured by Prof. G. D. 
Harris, not having any smooth space on the body-whorl. These so- 
called species appear to belong in one basket. 

Height 9 mm.; diam. 6 mm. 

LOCALITY. Six miles east of Thomasville, Ala., Wood's Bluff 

LEPTON VAUGHANI n. sp. PI. V, fig. 12. 

Shell small, surface smooth and shining ; lines of growth very fine, 
shell rather triangular in shape, longer than high ; slightly inequila- 
teral. Muscular scars showing, the posterior one rather long and 

Long. 3 mm. ; alt. 2 mm. 

LOCALITY. Wood's Bluff, Ala. 

REMARKS : This species seems to be an undoubted member of 
this genus, as it has the proper dentition ; some specimens are equi- 
lateral. Named in honor of T. Wayland Vaughn of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. This seems to be the first Lepton found in the 



Bifidaria ( Chcenaxis) tuba subsp. intuscostata. 

Differs from the type, externally, by its larger size, length 4, diam. 
2 mm. and the greater number of whorls, 6J. The smallest normal 


(hell measured is 3x l mm. with about 5 whorls, and the largest 
4^ x 2 mm. with 6| whorls. Internally there is a strong lamella on 
the columella, which can only be seen by breaking the shell, about 2 
whorls long in fully adult shells. Examination of a large number of 
shells of all ages shows that this lamella is a mark of maturity, as it 
does not appear until after the angular, parietal and outer columellar 
lamellae have begun to form. 

The arrangement and number of the other lamellae and plicae are 
the same as in the type, with the usual variation as to extra denticles, 
ordinarily seen in Bifidaria. The body whorl is decidedly angular at 
the umbilicus, and flattened below the periphery. 

Foothills of the Plumosa Range, about eight miles east of Quartz- 
site, Yuma county, Arizona, in drift. Collected by Mr. Geo. S. 

Type No. 5769 of my collection. Cotypes in Academy Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, and U. S. National Museum. 

In the peck or more of drift from which these shells were picked, 
there were only two other species, Bifidaria hordeacella Pils. and 
Pupoides marginatus (Say), with not even a fragment of anything 

In the Eagle Tail Mountains, twelve miles north of Kofa, Yuma 
county, at an altitude of about 2,000 feet, Mr. Hutson found a form 
which is apparently intermediate between the type and intuscostata, 
in that the columellar lamella is weaker and does not extend in so 
far. This is probably the form referred to by Pilsbry in Proc. 
A. N. S., 1906, page 146, taken by the late Dr. Ashmun at Tempe", 
Maricopa county. The habitat given by Hutson is : " In moist 
places among piles of loose rock covered by decaying cactus. Asso- 
ciated with these were also Bif, hordeacella and P. marginatus. 

The finding of this species in Cochise, Maricopa and Yuma 
counties, shows a distribution of B. tuba clear across the territory. 


Shell very much depressed, almost flat above, convex below, car- 
inated, the carina about in the plane of the upper surface ; sutures 
well impressed, whorls 5^ ; surface almost smooth, with faint and 
closely-set incremental lines ; nuclear whorl and a half finely granu- 
lated ; base convex, flattened around the umbilical region ; umbilicus 
deep, about 1^ mm. wide, showing a full turn of the penultimate 


whorl, termination of the body-whorl sharply descending at the 
aperture to about the middle of the whorl. Aperture very oblique ; 
lip obtusely angled and almost perpendicular below the middle of 
the whorl ; strongly constricted behind the reflected lip ; peristome 
well expanded above, narrower below, somewhat flexuous, united 
over the body by a thin callus ; parietal lamellae two, converging, 
but not united at the inner end into a V; the lower lamella stout, 
sinuous, the outer end bent sharply towards the umbilicus; the 
upper lamella low, narrow and straight, starting near the upper in- 
sertion of the lip and terminating back of the front end of the lower 
lamella ; basal part of the peristome with two strong lamellae trans- 
verse to the lip, the upper ends converging and united at the base 
on the lip, forming a U ; a broader and less transverse lamella set 
more deeply within the aperture on the upper lip, a small internal 
lamella on the base of the body whorl about three or four mm. long, 
showing faintly through the shell. 

Greater diameter 20^, lesser 18, alt. 6| mm. Black Mountain, 
at the southern end of the San Andreas Range, Donna Ana county, 
New Mexico, at an elevation of about 6,800 feet. 

This interesting shell was first collected by Mr. Walter E. Koch 
over a year ago. He sent me one perfect and one broken shell. 
Lately he has sent me three additional specimens, also dead. He 
reports dead shells quite plentiful in the crevices of a limestone cliff, 
but was unable to find living ones. I take great pleasure in naming 
the shell after him. 

Type no. 5765 of my collection. 

A. kochii is undoubtedly closely related to A. mearnsii, but is 
very much larger, more strongly carinated, and differs markedly in 
the umbilical region. 

Both of these species will be figured on plate VI, to appear next 



The small forest-snails known as Strobilops are spread throughout 
all parts of North America east of the Rockies where sylvan condi- 
tions prevail, from Canada to Florida, Mexico and Central America. 


Southward the genus extends to Venezuela, and even to the Gala- 
pagos Islands, if I am right in referring the little snail described as 
Endodonta helleri Dall to this genus. 

For many years similar snails have been known from the European 
Tertiaries, beginning with the Eocene and running up with numer- 
ous species through the Miocene, when the group apparently died 
out in that region, though many of its companion groups survived. 1 

Pdre Heude, the keen and brilliant Jesuit missionary-naturalist, 
described the first Asiatic Strobilops, in his memoirs on Chinese 
snails, under the name Helix diodontina. He did not recognize its 
kinship with other forms of Strobilops, nor has this been noticed by 
any other author until the present year, when the receipt of specimens 
of a Strobilops from Korea gave occasion for referring the Chinese 
H. diodontina to its proper genus. The Korean species, which I 
have decribed as Strobilops hirasei* is conic, like most American 
species, but it is simply striate instead of being ribbed. Quite lately 
a third Asiatic species has been sent by Mr. Hirase, discovered in 
the main island of Japan. It will be described in the Japanese 
Conchological Magazine. The finding of three species, in China, 
Korea and Japan, indicates Eastern Asia as another evolution-center 
for species of Strobilops. Probably still more will turn up there as 
the country is further explored. 

But this is not all. Several years ago Dr. O. von Moellendorff 
described several small snails from the Philippine Islands under the 
generic name Plectopylis : P. quadrasi with a variety brunnescens 
from Luzon, and P. trochospira from Bohoi. In his able and ex- 
haustive work on Plectopylis? Mr. G. K. Gude has erected a sub- 
genus Enteroplax for these species, rightly holding that they differ 
markedly from true Plectopylis. In reality, these Philippine snails 
are nothing more or less than Strobilops, having the form, sculpture, 
peristome and internal armature of this genus, the entering lamellae 
or cords on the parietal wall being minutely nodose, as in American 
and East Asiatic Strobilops. These Philippine species will stand as 
Strobilops quadrasi (Mlldff.) and Strobilops trochospira (Mlldff.). 

1 The identification of S. labyrinthica as a European fossil, recorded in Wood- 
ward's Manual and copied in some American works, is erroneous. The foreign 
species is quite distinct. 

The Magazine of Concbology, II, p. 39, figs. Y. Hirase, Kyoto, 1908. 

The Armature of Helicoid Land Shells, Science Gossip, 1899, p. 149. 


As to the place of origin of Strobilops we have no reliable data. 
The presence of typical forms of the genus in the Eocene shows that 
the group is a very old one, evolved in the Mesozoic. It is, more- 
over, strikingly distinct from all other genera, and wonderfully con- 
servative in general morphology. Until information from Mesozoic 
strata comes to hand, we can only surmise with some probability that 
Strobilops arose somewhere in the northern hemisphere. It probably 
overran the entire Holarctic realm a long time ago, pushing south- 
ward into the Oriental region and the American tropics at a time 
remote enough to permit the evolution of strongly marked species in 
these areas. 



Mr. W. W. Atwood of the U. S. Geological Survey has been 
making a study of the Miocene strata of Alaska Peninsula and the 
Shumagin Islands during the past summer, and collected a number 
of interesting fossils. Among these is a specimen of a species of 
Scala, or Epitonium, belonging to the group of giant Scalidae which 
is so characteristic of the Miocene of Oregon and some other parts of 
the Pacific coast. The list comprised the following species already 
described and figured. 

Opalia rugifera Dall, 

Arctoscala condoni Dall, 

Catenoscala oregonensis Dall ; 

together with the species about to be described. The type of Arcto- 
scalu is A. greenlnndica Perry, a recent species. Opalia rugifera is 
a member of the group represented in the San Diego Pliocene by 
0. varicostata Stearns, and in the recent fauna by 0. borealis Gould. 
Catenoscala is a new group in which the anterior third of the whorl 
is covered with a thick layer of enamel. 

Epitonium (Acrilla) atwoodi n. sp. 

Shell large, with rotund whorls rapidly increasing in size ; sur- 
face covered with a low reticulate sculpture comprising low axial 
lamellae, about 1.5 mm. apart on the periphery of the whorls, slightly 


retractive, pinched together and more prominent, and slightly angu- 
larly bent, at the suture ; these are crossed by low rounded threads, 
with wider interspaces, about a dozen on the penultimate whorl 
between the sutures ; the surface is also finely sharply axially striate ; 
the aperture is rounded, the outer lip slightly reflected and crenulate 
by the spiral threads, but not thickened ; whorls more than five, 
closely adjacent ; base (?); max. diam. 34 ; diam. at the truncate 
apex 10.0; alt. of five whorls (the apex lost) about 60.0 mm. 

The type specimen of this fine species, consisting of internal and 
external casts, was collected about five miles south of the head 
of Port Holler, in the pass leading across Alaska Peninsula called 
Low Pass Canon, U. S. Nat. Mus. 111072. Illustrations are in 

(Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological 



Lampsilis iridella P. & F. 

The shell is oblong, wider posteriorly, with the beaks at the ante- 
rior two-ninths of the length ; anterior end rounded ; posterior part 
sloping above, subtruncate at the end, compressed below the hinge. 
Surface glossy, smoothish, obliquely corrugated along the posterior 
slope (but sometimes very indistinctly so), and usually having a group 
of short impressed lines or furrows vertical to the basal margin, near 
the middle of the disk. Of a dull straw or pale greenish color, pro- 
fusely marked with green rays, which are usually quite distinct and 
narrow. The valves are thin, nacre bluish silvery, very iridescent 
posteriorly. Cardinal teeth small, a single rather stout one in the 
right valve, two more compressed and generally subequal teeth in 
the left valve. Lateral teeth very narrow, double in the left, single 
in the right valve. 

Length 49, alt. 26, diam. 15 mm. 

Valles, Mexico. Type no. 93810 A. N. S. P., collected by 
Mr. A. A. Hinkley. Cotypes in collections of Hinkley and Frierson. 


L. iridella,, NAUTILUS, XXII, no. 8, pi. 12, two lower right 
hand figs. 

This species was decided to be new when we studied Mr. Hinkley's 
Mexican shells in 1907, and so indicated in correspondence between 
the authors and Mr. Hinkley. It was figured as Lampsilis iridella in 
this journal for December, 1907. It is related to V- popei and U. 
medellinus (see NAUTILUS, Nov., 1907, p. 80). 

In this connection attention m'ay be called to the newly-described 
Lampsilis salinasensis Simpson, in Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1908, p. 181, pi. 30, f. 3, type loc., Salinas River, Coahuila, also 
reported from Valles River, Valles, Mexico. This form is closely 
related to L.jimbriata Frierson, from the same place, figured on the 
same plate of the NAUTILUS with L. iridella. 


COHASSET, MASS. The largest and finest specimens were found on 
rocks and eel-grass in about a foot of water and not more than three 
hundred yards from where the creek empties into Cohasset harbor. 
A dam and tide gates over which the salt water flows for only one or 
two hours at the top of each tide prevent the water at the epot where 
the shells were found from being as salty as one would expect, while 
a considerable amount of fresh water received by the upper part of 
the creek flows out on top of the salt water without mixing with it 
completely. Therefore the surface water is only brackish, not salt, 
and forms every winter very good black ice almost to the dam. 
Specimens were also found on floating plants about a mile further up 
the creek where the water has practically no salt in it. Dr. Pilsbry 
had specimens from both localities at the time he described the 
species OWEN BRYANT. 

much more depressed than V- humeralis, the last whorl descending 
less ; whorls convex below the suture, not flattened there as V. 
humeralis is. Alt. 2.7, diam. 4 mm. Bear Lake, San Bernardino 
Mts., California, collected by Mr. S. S. Berry. H. A. PILSBRY. 



ing along the river at Beach Haven, Augustus Remaley saw a fine 
specimen of blue heron evidently unable to fly. Attracted by the 
beautiful bird's distress, he discovered that a clam or fresh water 
mussel had closed tightly about one of the bird's toes and held it so 
securely that it could not get away. In the bird's mouth was a 
imall fish N. Y. Herald, Aug. 16, 1908. 

TYPE OF AMPULLA BOLTEN This name, proposed in the Mu- 
seum Boltenianum p. 110, for species of Achatina, Limicolaria and 
ffalia, evidently has precedence for some part of this assemblage. I 
propose to restrict it to the last genus, Ampulla priamus Bolt, being 
the type H. A. PILSBRY. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LiTTORiNA " The eggs of L. litorea, 
each enclosed in a hat-shaped capsule, are laid freely on the shore, 
not aggregated together in a gelatinous mass. There are trocho- 
sphere and veliger stages. L. litorea lives down in the zone of La- 
minaria and Fucus serratus. L. obtusata lives higher among Fucus 
vesiculosus ; its larva leaves (he egg as a veliger. L. rudis and L. 
neritoide.Si which live near high-water mark, are both viviparous. 
Thus the genus exhibits three stages in the evolution of the land 
from marine mollusca, with the suppression of larval forms with suc- 
cessive specialisations of habit." M. M. TATTERSALL, M. Sc., in 
The Irish Naturalist, Nov. 1908, p. 238. 


By WILLIAM HEALEY DALL. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xliii, no. 6, 
October, 1908. 

The dredging operations of the "Challenger," " Blake " and "Al- 
batross" have made us reasonably familiar with the deep water fauna 
of the western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and Gulf, but hitherto prac- 
tically nothing has been known of the deep water fauna off the west- 


ern shores of Middle and South America, with which this Report 
deals. A comparison of the two faunas reveals many interesting 
facts. The known fauna of the eastern Pacific deep sea contains 
about 300 species of mollusks, belonging to 134 generic and subgen- 
eric groups. The Antillean region possesses 174 groups and a much 
larger number of species. "There are practically no species com- 
mon to the two regions except at the southern extreme of South 
America, where a few species extend northward on both shores of 
the continent, but do not reach the Antillean or Panamic regions." 

The 300 species known from the Eastern Pacific deep sea fauna 
belong to 67 families, but 159 of them belong to only 8 families, of 
which the Turritidse or Pleurotomida (57species), Ledidtz (35 species), 
Dentaliida and Pectinida are the most abundantly represented. The 
Antillean deep water fauna has 174 generic and subgeneric groups, 
against 144 in the Pacific, but of this number only 89 are common 
to the two regions. Very many characteristic and prolific groups 
in either fauna are unrepresented in the other. " These statistics 
would indicate, if confirmed by further researches, that the separation 
between the abyssal fauna of the Pacific and that of the Antilles is 
very ancient indeed, for in the shallows many of these groups are 
represented on both sides of the isthmus of Darien, yet have not yet 
succeeded in reaching the deep water." The total absence of Tri~ 
phorida, Cerithiopsidce* Marginellida and Pyramidellidce in deep water 
on the Pacific side is especially remarkable. 

Some 254 new species of mollusca are described. A very useful 
synopsis of the recent species and subspecies of Argonauta is given, 
8 species being recognized. Much new and interesting material 
for the systematic student is given, especially in the Terebrida, 
Turritidce, Solemyacidce, etc., and as in all of Dr. Ball's papers, there 
is a large store of information of value far beyond the limits of the 
particular fauna under consideration. The changes in nomenclature 
consequent on the resurrection of Bolten's Catalogue, are numerous, 
and important to those engaged in similar work. Several lists are 
appended, of interest to those engaged in faunistics : shells from the. 
reefs and beaches of Easter Island and of Flint Island ; and a single 
valve of a Pisidium, Corneocyclas magellanicus n. sp., was taken in 
Magellan Straits, evidently washed in from some adjacent stream. 

As the pioneer work in a new fauna, this scholarly report will be 
welcomed by conchologists the world over. 







VOL. XXII. JANUARY, 1909. No. 9. 


In the fall of 1907 Mr. Herbert H. Smith explored about twenty- 
five miles of the Coosa River, lying between Chilton and Coosa 
counties. Amnicolides were very abundant, and more than 15,000 
specimens have been passed under examination. Among them were 
the several species herein described, which appear to be new. 

The principal collecting points were Cedar Island, three miles 
above "Waxahatchee Creek (in THE NAUTILUS, xxi, p. 128, this 
island was erroneously stated to be that distance above Yellowleaf 
Creek); The Bar, two miles further down stream, and two and one- 
half miles above Yellowleaf Creek (the second creek of that name); 
Butting Ram Shoals, five miles below The Bar; Higgins Ferry, 
seven miles further down; and Duncan Riffle, seven miles below the 
Ferry. Duncan Riffle is about twenty-four miles above Wetumpka. 
This interval still remains for some enterprising collector to explore. 

All of the Coosa River species collected by Hinkley were also 
found by Smith, with the exception of Som. aurens. S. hinkleyi, 
crassus and nanus occurred in great quantity, the latter being the 
most numerous. S. coosaensis, obtusus and aldrichi were less abund- 
ant, but were fairly common in some localities. S. constricts still 
remains the rarest of the Coosan Somatogyri, a bare half-dozen rep- 
resenting the total catch. An interesting "find" was that of S. 
substriatus, originally collected by Hinkley at Florence, Ala., and 
Columbus, Miss. 

As none of the Amnicolida collected by Mr. Smith in his journey 


by boat down the Coosa from Rome, Ga., to Widtiska Shoals, Shelby 
county, Ala., in 1904-5, have been worked up, it is not at present 
possible to say how far up the river any of these species extend. 

SOMATOGYRUS DECIPIENS n. sp. PI. vi, figs. 10 and 11. 

Shell obtusely conic, imperforate, thick, solid, light greenish- 
yellow, smooth, lines of growth very fine and inconspicuous. Spire 
elevated, obtuse; whorls 4, roundly shouldered below the suture, 
which is well impressed ; body whorl large, shouldered above, flat- 
tened on the sides and obliquely angled below and descending to the 
axis. Aperture very oblique, obovate, obtusely angled above and 
widening toward the base, which is slightly emarginate. Columella 
concave, with a heavy, wide, flattened callus which extends over the 
parietal wall. Lip sharp, heavily thickened within. 

Alt. (fig. 11) (apex eroded) 3^, diam. 2^ mm. 

Types (No. 28431, Coll. Walker) from the Coosa River at The 
Bar, Chilton county, Ala. Co-types in the collections of T. H. 
Aldrich, G. H. Clapp, John B. Henderson, Jr., and the Philadelphia 
Academy. Also from the Coosa at Cedar Island, Butting Ram 
Shoals, Higgins Ferry, Duncan Riffle and other points in Coosa and 
Chilton counties, collected by Smith, and from the Coosa at 
Wetumpka, five miles above Wetumpka, "Wilsonville, Fort William, 
and Montevallo, collected by Hinkley. 

A careful study of many hundreds of specimens has convinced me 
that under the description of Somatogyrus hinkleyi (NAUTILUS, xxii, 
p. 135) I confounded two distinct species, one imperforate, and the 
other perforate. As both the figured types of hinkleyi fortunately 
belong to the same form, the perforate one, that species will retain 
the name under the amended description given below. The imper- 
forate form is the species here described as decipiens. The dis- 
tinctive characters of the two species are so marked that, once 
appreciated, there is no difficulty in separating them at sight, and it 
is a matter of some chagrin that the difference was not realized in 
the first instance. 

S. decipiens is a smaller, thicker species than hinkleyi, and 
always imperforate, without any suggestion of an axial groove. 
While both species are alike in the elevation of the spire, decipiens 
is at all stages of growth distinctly biangulate, with the intervening 
side of the whorl flattened ; in some instances the lower angulation 
becomes a distinct carina, but this is not usual. 


For comparison with the similar state in S. hinkleyi, a young 
specimen of 3^ whorls (2^ x 1^ mm.) is also figured. (Fig. 10.) 

The following amended description should be substituted for that 
originally published for 

SOMATOGYRUS iiiNKLEYi "Walker. PI. vi, figs. 8 and 9. 

Somatogyrus hinkleyi Walker, NAUTILUS, xvii, 135, pi. v, figs. 
1 and 2. 

Shell globose, conic, narrowly umbilicate when young and perfo- 
rate when mature ; light horn-colored, smooth, growth-lines scarcely 
evident. Spire elevated, obtuse; whorls 4-4^, those of the spire 
convex, body whorl large, more or less shouldered above, but regu- 
larly rounded at the periphery, suture deeply impressed. Aperture 
large, rounded above, somewhat flattened at the base, and decidedly 
angled at the junction of the lip with the base of the columella, and 
angular at the upper insertion of the lip; lip simple, acute, in aged 
examples somewhat thickened within. Columella heavy, callused, 
flattened and nearly straight, reflected over and nearly concealing 
the narrow umbilicus, callus thinner on the body wall. 

For better illustration and comparison with S. decipiens I have 
refigured the original mature type (tig. 8) and have added another 
of a young shell (fig. 9) of 3-^ whorls (2^x2 mm.) for the purpose 
of showing the open umbilicus at that stage; the thin, shining shell 
and rounded whorls are very characteristic. 

S. hinkleyi, when mature, has a larger, thinner shell than decipiens, 
the columellar callus is not so heavy, and the persistent perforation, 
very rarely entirely obliteiated, as well as the general shape, are 

This species was found by Mr. Smith at the localities mentioned 
in connection with S. decipiens. 

SOMATOGYRUS HENDERSONI n. sp. PI. vi, fig. 2. 

Shell globose, perforate, thick, solid, greenish-horn-color, smooth, 
lines of growth slight, but regular. Spire short, subacute, whorls 
4-4^, flattened above, and roundly shouldered, body-whorl very 
large, inflated, somewhat constricted immediately below the suture, 
which is deeply impressed and then flatly expanded and roundly 
shouldered. Aperture large, subcircular, expanded; lip sharp, cal- 
lously thickened within, rather abruptly bent in above and meeting 
the parietal wall at nearly a right angle, broadly rounded below and 


curving regularly into the columella. Columella narrow, thickened, 
rounded and concave, separated below from the body-whorl by a 
small but profound umbilicus and a strong axial groove, adnate only 
on the parietal wall, which is heavily callused. Alt. (apex eroded) 
4.5, diam. 4.5 mm. 

Types (No. 28432, Coll. Walker) from Coosa River at Duncan's 
Riffle, Chilton County, Ala. Co-types in the collections of T. H. 
Aldrich, G. H. Clapp, J. B. Henderson, Jr., and the Philadelphia 
Academy. Also from the Coosa at Wilsonville, Ala. 

This species is about the size and general appearance of S. depres- 
sus Tryon, and sargenti Pils. It differs from the former in its 
heavier shell, sub-sutural constriction, large umbilicus and strong 
axial groove. The latter species is rather larger, not so thick and 
imperforate. A single specimen from Williamsville was recently 
sent in by Mr. Hinkley, which was not included in the material sent 
to me in 1904. 

Named in honor of Mr. J. B. Henderson, Jr., who has been a 
hearty supporter of Mr. Smith's work on the Coosa. 

SOMATOGYRUS PYGM^EUS n. sp. PI. vi, fig. 3. 

Shell minute, globose-conic, imperforate, rather thin, light green- 
ish horn-colored, smooth, lines of growth indistinct. Spire obtusely 
elevated, whorls 4, convex, suture deeply impressed ; body whorl 
large, convex, regularly rounded, impressed at the axis. Aperture 
subcircular, not much expanded. Lip simple, sharp, thin, regularly 
curved from the upper to the columellar extremity. Columella con- 
cave. Columellar callus narrow, flattened, closely appressed to the 
body whorl and extended over the parietal wall to the upper inser- 
tion of the lip. 

Alt. (apex eroded) 2.5, diam. 2 mm. 

Types (No. 28433, Coll. Walker) from the Coosa River, at The 
Bar, Chilton county, Alabama. Co-types in the collections of T. H. 
Aldrich, G. H. Clapp, J. B. Henderson, Jr., and the Philadelphia 

About twenty-five examples of this diminutive species were col- 
lected at The Bar. It did not occur elsewhere. I have been wholly 
unable to identify this form as the young of any of the associated 
species. Though so small, the shells have every appearance of 
maturity. Compared with j'oung S. nanus of the same s\ze,pygm<zus 
differs in the thinner shell, regular convexity of the whorls and 


lighter columellar callus. It is easily distinguished from other 
described species by its size. 

CLAPPIA, n. gen. 

Shell small, globose-turbinate, narrowly, but deeper umbilicate, 
aperture large, lip simple, columellar lip simple^ adnate to body- 
whorl only at the extreme upper portion, oblique, expanded and 
subangulale to its union with the basal lip, operculum corneus, 
paucispiral, nuclear whorls large and subcircular, slowly and grad- 
ually increasing. 

Rachidian tooth of the radula short and broad ; intermediate tooth 
with sub-quadrate body with a strong tooth projecting from the in- 
fero-anterior angle and a large peduncle; laterals multicuspid : 

Formula of the denticles : 6 " ] ~ 6 10-1-10, 50+, 50+ (Fig. 7). 


Type : Clappia clappi Walker. 

This genus stands close to Somatogyrus, but differs in several im- 
portant particulars, which forbid the reference of the type species to 
that group. 

The central tooth of the radula is very similar both in shape and 
in the arrangement and number of the denticles to that of S. de- 
pressus as figured by Stimpson. But the intermediate tooth lacks 
the perforation, which is found in that species, and has a prominent 
tooth at the infero-anterior angle which is lacking in the other. The 
laterals are multicuspid. In this respect, Clappia stands in the same 
relation to Somatogyrus that Cincinnatia does to Amnicola. 

In shell characters, Cluppia differs from Somatogyrus in the con- 
spicuous deep umbilicus, the straight, thin inner lip without any 
callus thickening, which is entirely separate from the body whorl, 
except for a very short distance at the upper extremity. 

The operculum is also very different. In all the species of Soma- 
togyrus examined, the nuclear whorls of the operculum are very 
small, while the last is enormously expanded (see Fig. 6, S. subglob- 
osus, Fig. 5, S.depressus). In Clappia (Fig. 4), on the other hand, 
the nuclear whorls are large and nearly circular, and form nearly one- 
half of the whole operculum. Indeed, in looking at the operculum in 
situ, the first impression is that it is completely circular as in Valvata. 

CLAPPIA CLAPPI n. sp. PI. vi, figs. 1, 4 and 7. 

Shell small, globose-turbinate, narrowly and deeply umbilicate ; 


rather thin, translucent, pale horn-color, smooth, shining, lines of 
growth very fine, close and regular; spire obtuse. Whorls 3, 
round, very convex, rapidly increasing toward the aperture, sepa- 
rated by a deep suture. Aperture large, slightly oblique, scarcely 
expanded, subcircular, equally rounded above and below, but flat- 
tened on the columellar side. Columellar lip thin, straight, oblique, 
adnate to the body-whorl only at the upper extremity, emarginate in 
the central portion, below which it is expanded, forming a rounded 
angle at its junction with the basal lip. Lip thin, sharp, not ex- 
panded nor callously thickened within. Operculum paucispiral, 
nuclear whorls large and subcircular. Animal black. 

Alt. (apex eroded) 3, diam. 3 mm. 

Types (No. 28434, Coll. Walker), from the Coosa River at 
Duncan's Riffle, Chilton County, Ala. Cotypes in the collections 
of T. H. Aldrich, Geo. H. Clapp, John B. Henderson, Jr., and the 
Philadelphia Academy. Found also at The Bar, Butting Ram 
Shoals and Higgins' Ferry. 

Deprived of its operculum, this species at first sight, from its gen- 
eral shape, rounded whorls and deep umbilicus, would be taken for 
a Valvata allied to V. sincera Say. But the straight columellar lip 
and the decided projection of the lip at its junction with the peri- 
treme show its affinity to Somatogyrus. 

The peculiarities of the radula and operculum have been sufficiently 
stated under the generic description. I am indebted to Dr. Pilsbry 
for the figure of the dentition. It seems eminently proper that this 
very distinct addition to the fauna of Alabama should both generi- 
cally and specifically bear the name of Mr. Geo. H. Clapp, the 
original promoter of the explorations of Mr. H. H. Smith, which 
have added so much to our knowledge of the mollusca of that State. 

Explanation of Plate VI. 

Figures 1, 3, 9 and 10 are on the same scale, x8. 
Figures 2, 8 and 11 are xG. 

O ' 

Figs. 1, 4 and 7. Clappia. clappi. Duncan's Riffle, Coosa R., Ala. 

Fig. 2. Somatogyrus hendersoni. Duncan's Riffle, Coosa R., Ala. 

Fig. 3. Somatogyrus pygmceus. The Bar, Coosa R., Ala. 

Fig. 5. Somatogyrus depressus. Watertown, Wis. 

Fig. 6. Somatogyrus subglobosus. Big Muddy R., Blairville, Ills. 

Fig. 8. Somatogyrus hiiihleyi. Coosa R., AVetumpka, Ala. 

Fig. 9. Somatogyrus hinkleyi. Coosa R., The Bar, Ala. 

Figs. 10 and 11. Somatogyrus decipiens. Coosa R., The Bar, Ala. 




Since C. T. Simpson published his new system of the Unionidx 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 22, 1900), which is founded, in a large part, 
upon the " marsupium " of the female, this latter organ must be re- 
garded as one of the most important features of the soft parts of the 
mussels, and should be known in every species. Yet there is a large 
number of species, in which it has never been seen by anybody. 
That certain species are very rarely found with the marsupium de- 
veloped, is, in my opinion, chiefly due to the fact that they are not 
easily obtained at the period when they are gravid. As Sterki has 
first suggested (NAUTILUS, 9, 1895, p. 91), there are two groups 
among our mussels with regard to the period of gravidity l ) : summer 
breeders and winter breeders. In the summer breeders the short 
"breeding season " falls into the early summer months (May, June, 
July) ; now since many of the species which belong or may belong 
here are characteristic for the larger rivers, avoiding smaller streams, 
and since just at this time the rivers very generally are swollen and 
muddy by copious summer-rains, it is practically impossible to col- 
lect them in the gravid condition. 

During the summer of 1908 we had exceptionally dry weather in 
our region ; the stage of the rivers in Pennsylvania was already in . 
the beginning of July very low, and thus the writer succeeded in 
finding several species in a gravid condition, which generally at that 
season are out of reach. In addition, he has collected other species 
in the smaller streams at various seasons, and has found gravid 
females, both of summer and winter breeders. The following is a 
list of them, which also intends to give the previous records for those 
species which are found in Pennsylvania:* 

1 In order to avoid misunderstanding, I want to state expressly that by 
" period of gravidity " or '' breeding season " I mean the time when the gills, 
or part of the gills, which forms the " marsupium," are filled with eggs or 

2 See : Lea, I ; Observations, II, 1838, p. 51 ff.; Ill, 1842, p. 231 ; VII, 1860, 
p. 221 ; X, 1863, p. 412, etc.; Sterki. V, NAUTILUS, 9, 1895, p. 91 ; 12, 1898, p. 
18; Amer. Natural., 37, 1903, p. 103; Baker, F. C., Bull. Chicago Ac., 3, 
1898 (passim) ; Conner, C. H., NAUTILUS, 21, 1907, p. 87. 



Truncilla triquetra Raf. Found gravid by the writer repeatedly 
in the months of September and October. 

Truncilla perplexa rangiana Lea. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95). 
Found gravid in September. 

Micromya fabalis Lea. July-August (Lea, III, '42). 

Lampsilis ventricosa Barn. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95); autumn 
(Lea, III, '42); March, October (Lea, ibid.). Found gravid by the 
writer in all months from May to October. Marsupium partly empty 
(ovisacs extruded) on May 11; marsupium just beginning to be 
filled, July 30. (Breeds apparently "all the year round." See 

Lampsilis ovata Say. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); November (Lea, 
X, '63). Found gravid in August, September, October. (This is 
merely a variety of L. ventricosa.) 

Lampsilis cariosa Say. October (Lea, II, '38). Found giavid 
in August. 

Lampsilis ochracea Say. June and November (Lea, II, '38). 

Lampsilis multiradiata Lea. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); July, Au- 
gust (Lea, ibid.). Found gravid in May, June, August, September, 
October. Only few specimens being found in June and July, it is 
uncertain whether there is an " interim " in the summer. 

Lampsilis luteola Lam. March, July-August, October (Lea, III, 
'42); July (Baker, '98). I found gravid specimens in April, May, 
June, July, August, September, October. The species is a typical 
winter breeder, only the end of one season and the beginning of the 
next partly overlap in summer. In June, and chiefly in the begin- 
ning of July, sterile females (with the marsupium not charged) are 
much more frequent than in other seasons, while gravid females are 
very rare at the same time. 

Lampsilis radiata Gmel. "All the year round" (Conner, '07); 
November (Lea, II, '38); May (Lea, X, '63). Discharge of ovi- 
sacs observed from November to March (Lea, X, '63). 

Lampsilis ligamentina Lam. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95); au- 
tumn (Lea, III, '42). Found gravid by the writer in August, 
September, October, but not in July. Among numerous specimens 
collected, July 8, '07, July 3, 10 and 13, '08, not a single gravid 
female was discovered. The earliest date for the latter is August 3, 
but from that time on they were found regularly. This species pre- 


fers the larger rivers, and thus no dates could be secured for the 
spring months, yet the " interim " in July is very sharply marked. 

Lampsilis orbiculata Hildr. Autumn (Lea, III, '42). Found 
gravid in August and September. 

Lampsilis recta Lam. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95) ; autumn 
(Lea, '42). Found gravid in July, August, September, October. 
No records at hand for the early summer. 

Lampsilis nasuta Say. " All the year round " (Conner, '07) ; 
winter breeder (Sterki, '95) ; November (Lea, II, '38). I found 
this species gravid in September (Delaware River), and on June 2 
and 3 (in Lake Erie), when numerous gravid females were found. 

Lampsilis iris Lea. I found three gravid females on May 11. 

Lampsilis parva Barn. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95) ; May and 
November (Lea, VII, 'GO). Extrusion of ovisacs observed by Lea 
(ibid.) in May. 

Lampsilis (Proptera) alata Say. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95) ; 
autumn (Lea, III, '42). Found gravid end of August, September, 

Lampsilis (Propterd) gracilis Barn. Winter breeder (Sterki, 
'95) ; autumn (Lea, II, '42). Found gravid in September. 

Obovaria relusa Lam. Autumn (Lea, III, '42). I found a 
gravid female of this species on August 29, '08. 

Obovaria circulus Lea. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95) ; autumn 
(Lea, III, 42) ; March, July-August (Lea, ibid.). I found gravid 
females on May 27, '08. Both forms 0. circulus and lens are in- 
cluded here : they pass into each other.) 

Obovaria ellipsis Lea. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95); autumn 
(Lea, III, '42). 

Plagiola securis Lea. Autumn (Lea, III, '42). Gravid females 
not rare in September and October. 

All species mentioned so far possess the " Lampsilis-type " of 
marsupium, i. e., the posterior part of the outer gills is charged, at 
the period of gravidity, with eggs or embryos contained in distinct 
ovisacs. When not gravid, this part of the gills differs in structure 
from the rest, and females are always recognizable. 

Gryptogenia irrorata Lea. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95); autumn 
(Lea, III, '42). 

Marsupium very peculiar, but allied to the Lampsilis-type. 

Ptychobranchus phaseolus Hildr. Winter breeder (Sterki, '95); 


autumn (Lea, III, '42). Found gravid in August, September, Oc- 
tober. A specimen found on May 11, '07, had most of the ovisacs 
discharged. None of the numerous specimens collected by the 
writer in June and July were gravid. 

The peculiar shape of the marsupium of this species is well known. 

In the following species, belonging to Group A, the marsupium 
occupies the whole of the outer gills, and while in Strophitus dis- 
tinct " placentae " (Sterki) are developed, such structures or ovisacs 
are not present in the rest. 

Strophitus undulatus Say. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); March, Octo- 
ber (Lea, ibid.y, September, December (Lea, II, '38); discharge of 
placentae observed in January and February (Lea, X, '63). I found 
this species gravid in the months of July, August, September, Octo- 
ber; also in May. The latest date is May 22, '08 (one out of eleven 
individuals). Among numerous specimens collected on May 14 and 
May 27, '08, no gravid females were present, and during the month 
of June such were never found, although a good number of specimens 
were collected. The earliest date again is July 11. This gives an 
" interim " from the end of May to about the middle of July. 

The eastern S. undulatus Say is absolutely undistinguishable from 
the so-called S. edentidus Say of the western waters. 

Anodonta cataracta Say. Breeding season, eight months during 
the year; the interim May to October (Conner, '07); gravid in Octo- 
ber and November (Lea, II, '38). I have seen gravid specimens 
collected on July 23, '08, and August 21, '08. The first date, no 
doubt, represents an exceptional case: there was only a single gravid 
individual among forty to fifty specimens. The other date (also a 
single individual, but only one found at that date) possibly marks 
the beginning of the season. At any rate it is very probable that 
the breeding season occasionally lasts longer than indicated by Con- 
ner, and may be extended in individual cases beyond May and may 
begin earlier than October, as is the case in other winter breeders. 

O * 

Anodonta imbecillis Say. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); March (Lea, 
tbid.~). Found gravid May 21, '08 (outlet of Lake Leboeuf, Erie 
county), and June 2, '08 (Lake Erie). This species is hermaphro- 
ditic, according to Sterki (NAUTILUS, 12, '98, p. 87). 

Anodonta grandis Say. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); July, August 
(ibid.y, October (Baker, '98). In Pennsylvania gravid females are 
frequent in August, September, October. I have found a single 


gravid female on May 22, '08, out of a large number collected. 
Among numerous specimens collected on April 24, June 23, July 17 
none were gravid. Thus the " interim " appears to extend over the 
month of May to July, with occasional individual exceptions. 

Anodontoides fcrussacianvs Lea. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); Octo- 
ber (ibid.). Found gravid in May, August and October. Among 
a dozen specimens, collected June 5, '08, in Little Shenango River, 
and among numerous specimens of the var. subcylindraceus Lea, 
collected on June 2, '08, in Lake Erie, not a single one was gravid. 
This would establish an interim at least in June. No dates are at 
hand for July. 

Symphynota compressa Lea. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); March, 
September (Lea, ibid.). Gravid in May and beginning of June 
(June 2 in Lake Erie; only part of the outer gills charged). No 
gravid females taken during the rest of June, and during July, but 
only a small number of specimens was secured during this time. 
Beginning August 6, all through the month, and during September 
and October, gravid females were abundant. The color of the mar- 
supium is very variable in this species : whitish, pink, orange, 
brown, and probably depends on the stage of development of eggs 
and embryos. 

(To be continued.} 



portion of shell-sand gathered by Mr. John Robinson at Hampton 
Beach, New Hampshire, I discovered a genus new to America, 
namely Homalogyra atomus Phil. A subsequent visit to this place 
enabled me to add a number of forms new to the New England 
Coast north of Cape Cod. Among those thus far determined is a 
Scissurella, probably crispata Flem., and Caecum pulchellum Stimp. 
A few years ago Miss Marjorie C. Newell discovered specimens of 
Tagelus devisus Spengl. on Coffin's Beach, and Miss M. W. Brooks 
has detected a specimen of this species at Hampton Beach. 

Later I hope to make an extended paper with illustrations of these 
and other new additions to our molluscan fauna. EDWARD S. 


In his " Economic Zoology, an introductory text-book in Zoology 
with special reference to its applications in Agriculture, Commerce and 
Medicine," by Herbert Osborn, M. Sc., 1908, the chapter on Mollusca 
(p. 147-173) is partially illustrated by original figures. Figs. 94 
and 95, labeled "Common Snail, Patula alternata" is apparently 
Polygra profunda ! Except fora very brief allusion to the pearl 
and pearl-button industry, the only "economic" mollusks mentioned 
are the oyster and Mya arenaria, although to go no further away than 
our own coast, commercially the round clam or quahog is much the 
more important of our clams, and the scallop industry has assumed 
large proportions. 

Alcadia pusilla intermedia, n. var. Shell intermediate in size 
between A. pusilla and A. hollandi, alt. 5.2, diam. 7.7 mm. ; opercu- 
lum roughened externally much as in A. hollandi, its columellar mar- 
gin with sharp comb-like costulae. Jamaica, (S. Raymond Roberts.) 


BlFIDARIA TUBA 1NTUSCOSTATA Clapp. Plate VII, figs. 1, 2, 

3, 4, Broken shells showing internal lamella X 10. 5, 6, 7, 8, Ab- 
normal shells X 10. 9, 10, 11 Typical X 12. 


ARNOLD. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxxiv, p. 345, plates 31-37, 
1908.) Descriptions of the various geological formations with lists 
of species, followed by descriptions of some thirty-seven new species. 

DALL, (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxxv, p. 177, plates 29-33, 1908.) 
A new species of Coelocentrum (C. palmeri Dall and Bartsch) forms 
the type of a new section Crossostephanns. Three new Streptostylas, 
one Euglandina and one Lampsilis are described and figured. 
Anodonta coarctata Anton and Diplodon welsteri Simpson are also 
figured. The latter from New Zealand, was described in THE NAU- 
TILUS, Vol. xvi, p. 30, 1902. 



9 11 10 



Voi,. XXII. FEBRUARY, 1909. No. 1O. 



A part of my October vacation was spent with a party of geologists 
on a house-boat trip from Tuscaloosa, on the Warrior river, to Jack- 
son, on the Tombigbee. The party consisted of the State Geologists 
from South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Alabama, namely, Mr. 
Earle Sloan, Mr. T. W. McCaloie, Dr. E. H. Sellards, Dr. Eugene 
A. Smith and Dr. F. W. Prouty, besides Dr. George Little, of Tus- 
caloosa; Dr. Roland M. Harper, of New York, botanist; Hon. T. H. 
Aldrich, of Birmingham, paleontologist; and Dr. T. Wayland 
Vaughan, of the U. S. Geological Survey, who was studying in 
detail the correlation of the coastal plain geology of the Southern 

One of the results of the expedition was the confirmation of our 
Alabama nomenclature for the cretaceous and tertiary formations so 
typically illustrated in this State. Another result was the fine series 
of fossils collected along the route. 

From Jackson some of the party went to the sections about Mobile 
to study the Grand Gulf formation, while I made my way to the classic 
locality Claiborne, on the Alabama river. To one who has but 
recently delved into the mysteries of paleontology no more encourag- 
ing formation could be desired than this. Made famous by tlie early 
work of Lea and Conrad, a fascination for every student since, it will 
not fail to yield treasures new and old to any zealous collector. A 
year ago I gathered a quantity of shells there, enough to fill the win- 
ter's evenings with rare pleasure, but this year I was even more 


The beautiful Gorbis lamellosa Lam. was found in a thin layer of 
white sand in the ferruginous bed quantities of them in perfect 
condition. Just as I was leaving I picked up a Cyprcea nuculoides 
Aid., 1 so far as I know never before reported from this locality. A 
fine large Fusus ( Clavilithes) protextus Con. rewarded my laborious 
digging, as well as perfect specimens of most of the common species. 
It was on my last visit that I was fortunate enough to find the very 
rare Cancellaria priama Harris, 2 the type of which had unfortunately 
been broken. I obtained two enormous Trochiformis infundibulwm 
Lea, and among other interesting, though not in every case rare, 
species may be mentioned the following: Plsania claibornensis Whitf., 
Lutraria papyria Con., Avicula limula Con., Papillina papiUata 
Con. (very rare), Fusus inauratus Con., Conus sauridens Con., Cornu- 
lina armigera Con., a Melongena n. sp., Limopsis cimeus Con., Ft'ssu- 
rella tenebrosa Con., Sigaretus declivis Con., Actaon inflatior Meyer, 
Mathilda leana Aid., Leiorhynus prorutus Gabb. 

The locality ought also to be interesting to the collector of recent 
shells. I noted on the bluff the dainty Glandina rosea Per. 

Passing through the overgrown and deserted streets of the vil- 
lage, 8 one would hardly suspect that in former times it was important 
enough to be visited by General Lafayette (1825) in his tour of the 
States. But the old Masonic Hall in which he spoke still stands, 
though now removed to Perdue Hill, two miles away. Here (in 
Claiborne) Conrad taught the children of a wealthy family while he 
named the treasures of the ancient eocene sea. Two of Alabama's 
Governors Bagby and Murphy were residents of Claiborne when 
elected, and Charles Tait, to whom the scientific world is indebted 
for its first knowledge of this famous bed. was Alabama's first Federal 
Judge. On the "Bluff" itself stood old ''Fort Claiborne," whose 
guns frowned vengeance on the crafty Choctaws; but gone now is 
the glory of the once proud river town, scattered are its families, and 
almost past recovery are its traditions. 

But for how many years to come will these ancient seas continue 
to give up the secrets entrusted to them ? Monuments that crumble 
and yet survive; frail shells on which the order of creation is too 
finely graven for human skill to imitate. 

Bloclon, Alabama. 

NAUTILUS, Vol. XVI, p. 98, pi. 3. 

2 Bull. Am. Pal., Vol. I, p. 49, pi. 1, fig. 20. 

s There are less than fifty inhabitants (white) in Claiborne to-day. 




(Concluded from page 95.) 

Symphynota viridis Conr. August 24, '08, four gravid females 
were found among a dozen specimens ; of 35 specimens collected by 
Dr. D. A. Atkinson on July 11, '08, not a single one was gravid. 

Symphynota costata Eaf. Autumn (Lea, III, '42); March, Oc- 
tober (Lea, ibid.'). I found gravid specimens in April, May (latest 
date, May 26), and then again in August (earliest date, August 9), 
September, October. Numerous specimens were collected in June 
and July, but none of them was gravid. 

Symphynota complunata Barn. Autumn (Lea, III, '42) ; March 
(Lea, ibid.). Gravid females found on May 14, '08. 

Alasmidonta undulata Say. September und October (Lea, II, 
'38). Gravid females on July 18 and August 12. 

Alasmidonta heterodon Lea. August, September (Lea, II, '38); 
May (Lea, X, '63). 

Alasmidonta marginata Say. October and December (Lea, II, 
'38). The western form was found gravid in August, September, 
October. Out of a number of specimens collected on June 5, 8 and 
22 none was gravid. No dates at hand for July. The eastern form 
was found gravid on August 13. The western form (= truncata 
Wright = typical marginata Say) is hardly distinguishable from the 
eastern (=var. varicosa Lam.), see Pilsbry and Fox, NAUTILUS, 
'01, pp. 16 and 17). 


Some of the summer breeders ( Unio, Pleurobema) have the outer 
gills only serving as inarsupium, in others (^Quadrula) all four gills 
are supposed to assume this function in the breeding season. Yet in 
many Quadrulas this condition is unknown, and, as we shall see be- 
low, the arrangement of the species into genera will need revision 
and correction. I enumerate the species here according to Simpson's 

Unio gibbosus Barn. Summer breeder (Sterki, '95); July, Aug- 
ust (Lea, III, '42). I found gravid females of this common species 
in June and July, and a single belated one on August 13. Hun- 


dreds of individuals were collected in April, May, August, Septem- 
ber, October, but no gravid females were among them. 

Unio crassidens Lam. Summer breeder (Sterki, '95). I collected 
numerous specimens in July, August, September, October, but never 
found a gravid female. I never had a chance to get this species 
earlier in the season. 

Unio complanatus Dillw. " But once annually, from April-May 
to July-August " (Conner, '07); May (Lea, X, '63). I collected 
this species only in the month of August, and consequently never 
found it gravid. 

Pleurobema clava Lam. July-August (Lea, III, '42). Found 
gravid on June 18 and July 10. Specimens collected on May 14 
and in August, September and October were not gravid. 

Pleurobema aesopus Green. Summer breeder (Sterki, '95). 
Gravid on July 3 and 13, '08. Never found in the gravid state 
during August, September, October, when many were collected. 

Sterki ('95) places this with the species, in which all four gills 
are charged, and (Pr. Ohio Ac., 4, '97, p. 391) with the genus 
Quadrula. Yet according to my observations only the outer gills 
serve as marsupium, and are distinguished at that time by a very 
peculiar red color; already Lea (X, '63, p. 432) enumerates this spe- 
cies among those which have red eggs, but he saw them only in the 
ovarium. Yet this " red " of the gills is entirely different from that 
of certain gravid species of Quadrula, being rather of a "lilac" hue. 

Quadrula nndulata Barn. Summer breeder (Sterki, '95). I col- 
lected many specimens in August, September, October, but did not 
find gravid females. The only one was found on July 3, '08; it had 
all four gills charged, which were whitish (not red). 

Lea (X, '63, p. 417) says that only the outer branchiae serve as 
marsupium, while Sterki ('95) puts it in group B, where all four 
branchiae are said to be charged. 

Curiously enough, Sterki ('95, p. 93) places the closely allied U. 
multiplicatus Lea (= Q. heros Say) with his group A (winter 
breeders), giving the date November 1, and says that also the mar- 
eupium is of the type A (Lampsilis type). Since the latter has been 
described and figured by Lea (VII, '60, p. 122, pi. 30, f. 105), and 
is distinctly of the Quadrula type, with all four gills charged, I believe 
that we have to deal with a lapsus calami for U. mutiiradiatus Lea. 

Quadrula lachrymosa Lea. May (Lea, III, '42). 


Quadrula pusttilosa Lea. Summer breeder (Sterki, '95). 

Quadrula rubigmosa Lea. July-August (Lea, III, '42); June 
(Baker, '98). I found this species gravid on May 27, June 30, 
July 3 and July 8. The marsupium corresponds to the account 
given of it by various writers; it is formed by all four gills, which 
are at that time deep red. 

Quadrula subrotunda Lea. Summer breeder (Sterki, '95). Found 
gravid July 3 and July 13. During late summer and fall no gravid 
females were found, although many specimens were collected. All 
four gills are charged and of deep red color. 

Quadr >/f a kirtlandiana Lea. One gravid female was found on 
August 2, '07, among hundreds of specimens collected ; all four gills 
were charged, and red. Later in the season, in August, September, 
October, no gravid females were seen. 

Quadrula coccinea Conr. Found gravid on June 18, '08 (Nes- 
hannock Creek, McKean Co., collected by Mr. Dennis Dally on 
June 22, '08. There were, altogether, about a dozen of them, and 
in every case the marsupium did not agree with the type of the 
genus Quadrula, for only the outer gills were charged in their whole 
extent, and were whitish. This would remove this species from the 
genus Quadrula, and would place it with Pleurobema. (Baker, '98, 
p. 80, gives a description of the soft parts, and says " four gills used 
as marsupium," but this may not be founded upon personal observa- 
tion, but may have been inferred from the systematic position of the 

Tritogonia tiiberculata Barn. Gravid, according to Sterki (NAU- 
TILUS, 21, '07, p. 4<S) on June 10, '07 S and marsupium formed by 
all four gills. This would place the species with the genus Quadrula, 
where it would group with Q. trctpezoides Lea. Since the specific 
name is preoccupied in this genus, and since none of the synonyms 
are available, a new name should be found, and I propose here : 
Quadrula tritogonia nov. nom. (I have discussed this point with 
Dr. Sterki, and he is of the same opinion.) 

Of the other species of Quadrula found in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, Q. hippopcea Lea, cylindrica Say, metanevra Raf., cooperiana 
Lea, obi! qua Lea, pyramidata Lea, tiiberculata Raf., I have never 
seen gravid females, and nothing is known about their marsupium 
and breeding season. 

The above observations on the breeding seasons of Pennsylvanian 


UnionidcR fully bear out Sterki's division into two groups : summer 
and winter breeders. The breeding season of the summer breeders 
is short (maximum hardly four months), while in the winter breed- 
ers this season is prolonged, extending from late summer, through 
the winter into spring. Yet it must be borne in mind that probably 
in the single individual the breeding season does not fully occupy the 
whole length of the term, since it has been repeatedly observed that 
the embryos and ovisacs are discharged at various times, even in the 
beginning of the winter. 

In some species belonging to the group of winter breeders the 
period of gravidity may be extremely long, so that the end of one 
breeding season (in May, June, July) may overlap with the begin- 
ning of the next (June, July, August), and such species may appear 
to breed " all the year round." This has been hinled at already by 
Sterki, and Conner gives the following instances: Lampsilis radiata 
and Lampsilis nasuta. My own observations make this condition 
probable in Lampsilis ventricosa and Lampsilis luteola. Yet in 
others an " interim " is very distinct in the early summer. This is 
the normal condition, according to Sterki, and has been found to be 
true for Anodonta cataracta by Conner, and by my observations it is 
made more or less probable for Lampsilis ligamentina, Ptychobranchus 
phaseolus, S/rophitus undulatus, Anodonta grandis, Anodontoides fer- 
ussacianvs, Symphynota compressa, Symphynota viridis, Symphynota 
costata, Alasmidonta marginata. 

These peculiar conditions may be explained by the following 
assumption: Quadrula, with the four gills serving as marsupium, is, 
in my opinion, the most primitive type of our Unionidce. Next to it 
stand Pleurobema and Unio, with only the outer gills serving as mar- 
supium, but with the shell more or less resembling that of Quadrula. 
These forms represent also the most primitive type of the breeding 
season, which is short, and falls into the warm season. These forms 
existed already al a time when a uniform warm climate prevailed. 
At that time, possibly, the breeding season was not so restricted, but 
at the present time it has become so, since only during a short period 
of the year these old, primitive conditions prevail (in summer). 
Forms like Unio and Quadrula actually go back to mesozoic times. 

All other genera are more advanced. The group Alasmidonta, 
Symphynota, Anodontoides, Anodonta, Strophitus (which is, accord- 
ing to Sterki, characterized by a peculiar glochidium) resembles in 


the marsupium the Pleurobema-Unio type, but differs by a general 
tendency to reduce the hinge teeth. Another group is formed by the 
rest of the genera, in which the marsupium becomes very highly 
specialized, more or less restricted to a part of the outer gills, and 
where true ovisacs are developed. All these more advanced genera 
originated probably at a time when seasonal changes of climate 
existed already in our continent in the tertiary and the shorten- 
ing of the warm period in summer possibly induced them to prolong 
the breeding season, that is to say, to postpone the discharge of the 
embryos to a more favorable time, namely, till the next spring. 
This made necessary special adaptations for the carrying of the em- 
bryos through the winter, and probably the ovisacs of the most 
highly developed genera belong to these special adaptations. In 
certain genera, ovisacs are not at all developed, and in Strophitus an 
independent form (placentae). This lengthening of the breeding 
season finally led to the merging of the end of the one of them into 
the beginning of the next (known only in one of the most highly 
specialized genera, Lampsilis*), while in less specialized genera, in 
Alasmtdonta, Symphynotu, Anodonta, also in Ptychobrunchus and 
some species of Lampsilis, an " interim " in midsummer still exists. 

I think this is a reasonable interpretation of the different types of 
breeding season and their development, yet it is proposed here as a 
mere theory, which should be substantiated by further investigations 
on the marsupium and the breeding seasons of our Unionida. 



A considerable amount of work has been done on New Mexican 
mollusks, and the numerous local lists published would make a good 
showing for the Territory if compiled into one catalogue. The more 
recent lists were based upon material collected by Professor T. D. A. 
Cockerell and his pupils, and by Messrs. Joshua L. and Albert Baily, 
Ferriss and Pilsbry. The records are to be found in NAUTILUS, ix, 
p. 116; x, p. 42; xi, p. 69; xii, pp. 76, 131; xiii, pp. 13, 36, 49, 79; 
xiv, pp. 9, 47, 72, 82, 85; xvi, pp. 57, 69, Mollusca of the South- 
western States, I, II, etc. 


In 1906 we collected a few shells in the neighborhood of Albu 
querque while waiting for trains. 

The immediate environs of Albuquerque are barren of molluscan 
life. Only along the Rio Grande the drift debris affords small shells, 
the land forms probably washed down from the Sandia mountains, 
which rise north of the city. A low ridge of black volcanic rock 
frowning on the western horizon proved to be not worth the excur- 
sion. We found only a few Pitpoides marginatus there. The nearer 
slopes of the Sandia mountains are also barren. A few small species 
Were found in the canyon beyond the Agricultural College. A much 
richer fauna no doubt inhabits the higher slopes northward. Miss 
Maud Ellis found twelve species in Las Huartus canyon, at 8000- 
9000 feet elevation (NAUTILUS, xiv, 85). 

The following forms were taken: 

Helicodiscus eigenmanni arizonensis P. & F. Rio Grande drift ; 
Sandia Mts. 

Vitrea indentata umbilicata Ckll. Sandia Mts. 

Zonitoides arborea (Say). Sandia Mts.; Rio Grande drift debris. 

Zonitoides minuscula (Binn.). Sandia Mts.; Rio Grande drift 

Euconulus fulrus (Miill.). Sandia Mts. 

Vallonia cychphorelJa Anc.. Rio Grande drift debris. 

Cochlicopa lubrica (Miill.). Sandia Mts. 

Pupoides marginatus (Say). Rio Grande drift debris; volcanic 
ridge about 5 miles west of Albuquerque. 

Pupoides horduceus (Gabb). Rio Grande drift. 

Pupilla blandi Morse. Rio Grande drift. 

Bifidaria procera (Gld.). Rio Grande drift. 
. Bifidaria procera cristata P. & V. Rio Grande drift. 

Bifidaria peUucida hordeacella (Pils.). Rio Grande drift. 

Bifidaria armifera (Say). Rio Grande drift. 

Vertigo ovata Say. Rio Grande drift. 

Lyrmicea bulimoides cockerelli P. & F. Rio Grande drift. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. Rio Grande drift. 

Planorbis parvus Say. Rio Grande drift. 

Valvata (humeralis Say ?), one broken specimen. Rio Grande 




This small lake is located in the forest near the south line of 
Westmanland Plantation, and is the headwater of Salmon Brook. 
This little lake contains some interesting shells not (bund in the 
county before. The deposit of dead shells (marl) is many feet in 
thickness, and is chiefly composed of Pisidia. 

The living shells are extremely rare in the lake, and those col- 
lected came from small spring brooks at the north end of the lake. 
Dr. V. Sterki has kindly examined all the Pisidia. I do not know 
what the amateur collectors would do with these miserable little 
shells without his assistance. The fossils collected are as follows: 

Lymniza desidiosa Say. Common. 

Planorbis campanulatus Say. Common. 

Planorbis bicarinatus Say. A few young shells. 

Planorbis hirsulus Gld. One specimen. 

Planorbis parvus Say. Abundant. 

Ancybts parcillelus Hald. One specimen. 

Valvata sp. ? A variable species; some are nearly flat, others 
have the apex extremely elevated, a large percentage are decollate 
and the whorls are sometimes dislocated near the apex. 

Mr. Bryant Walker has examined specimens and states: "They 
are extremely curious * * * I have never seen any like them before. 
They are no doubt a form of V. sincera Say." 

Dr. W. H. Dall gives me the following information: "They are 
exactly like the depauperate form of V. lewisii Currier. * * * The 
distortions are familiar to me as found in marl deposits, the water 
becoming too much mineralized for the mollusks." 

I made special efforts to obtain living specimens of this Valvata 
during the two trips to the lake, but not one could be found. 

Anodonta fragilis Lam. Fragments. 

Sph&rium sulcatum Lam. A few valves. 

Sph cerium rhomboideum Say. Common. 

Musculium sp. ? probably securis Prime. Small. 

Pisidium variabile Prime. 
" compressum Prime. 
" affine Sterki. 


Pisidium mainense Sterki. 

" ventricosum Prime. 

" costatum Sterki. 

" medianum var. minutum Sterki. 

" contortum Prime. 

" triangulare St^rki. 

" tenuissimum Sterki. 

" splendidulum Sterki. 

" splendidulum, a new var. Sterki. 

" abditum? or closely related to that species. 
The following living shells were collected: 
Planorbis trivolvis Say. Two specimens. 
Planorbis parvus Say. Three specimens. 
Anodonta fragilis Lam. One specimen. 
Musculium sp. ? A small form, probably a new species. 
Pisidium variabile Prime. 

" ventricosum Prime. 

" subrotundum Sterki. 

" mainense Sterki. 

" medianum var. minutum Sterki. 

" splendidulum Sterki. 

" splendidulum, a new variety. Sterki. 

As additions to the Aroostook county shells, I might mention 
Pisidium punctum var. simplex Sterki. Dead water Caribou stream, 
Woodland. Rare and new to the county. 

Pisidium milium Hald. is common in Gelot's Lake, New Sweden. 
Caribou, Me. 



A few facts having important bearing on the classification of the 
Naiades, having come to notice, are herewith given to the readers of 

Two species of the genus Pseudodon were obtained from Sowerby 
and Fulton, showing beak sculpture. P.vondembuschiana Lea has a 
somewhat doubly looped sculpture. The anterior loops curve upwards ; 
the posterior are straighter, sloping backwards and downwards. 

P. walpolei has a sculpture much like that of the Cristarias, being 
heavy bare, more or less parallel with the growth-lines. 


The important fact revealed by these specimens shows that the 
genus must be moved from the subfamily Hyriinte and placed in the 
subfamily Unionince. 

Two species of Parreysia ( P. corriiguta, and P. wynegungaensis) 
were received (numerous specimens) bearing eggs in all lour gills, as 
in Quadrula. That these shells would be found bearing ova in all 
four gills was prophesied as being probable by Mr. Simpson (Synop- 
sis, page 508). 

The important bearing of this fact is that it proves that beak 
sculpture and manner of carrying ova in the gills are not correlated. 

In this connection Mr. C. T. Simpson wrote (in a letter) several 
years ago that gravid animals of the group of Unio (Nodularia) 
coffer Krauss proved to carry eggs in their outer gills, and thus 
necessitated the moving of this group from the subfamily Hyriinee, 
genus Nodularia, to the subfamily Unioninez, genus Unio. 

But in the light, of further knowledge we see that our definition 
of the subfamily Hyriina (as differentiated from Unionines] must be 
amended. We must choose between beak sculpture ("radial versus 
concentric ") or marsupial characters (" Exobranchiae versus Endo- 
branehias") in our definitions. 

The judgment of the writer would be to drop the marsupial feature 
and adhere to the beak sculpture, thus giving for our definition of 
the subfamily Unionintz : ''Essentially concentric beak sculpture," 
and for Hyriiiia: u Essentially radial beak sculpture." Thus 
amended, the group of Nodularia coffer Krauss remains undisturbed, 
as originally located by Mr. Simpson. 




Shell perforated, oblong, with a rather acute apex, of deep horn 
color, pellucid; whorls 4^-5, quite convex, with a deep suture, with 
sub-regular, crowded striae (except the embryonal), the last occupy- 
ing about one-half of the altitude, gradually narrowed towards the 
aperture, which is small; peristome slightly everted, margin not 
thickened; palatal wall with an indentation barely above its middle, 
forming a well-marked sinus and sinulus; behind it a trace of a crest, 
and behind that a long, deep furrow-like impression over the palatal 


folds, ascending obliquely from near the base; no callus within; 
lamellae and plicae 6; parietal rather long and curved; parallel with 
it is a thin, lamelliform angular; columellar and inferior columellar 
rather small, short, the latter near the base; palatals long, the lower 
deep-seated, ending close to the beginning of the upper, one appear- 
ing to be a continuation of the other. 

Alt. 1.6, diam. 0.9 mm. 

Soft parts not seen. 

Woodland, Aroostook county, Maine, collected in 1896 by Mr. 
Olof O. Nylander, in whose honor the species is named. I have two 
specimens on hand, the types (No. 1075 of my collection of North 
American Pupidce); a few more are in the collection of Mr. Nylander. 
Ever since '96 the form was regarded as distinct, but not published. 
The two specimens are alike, mature and perfect, and cannot be 
deformed ones of some other species. In appearance and surface 
stria; they are somewhat like V- gouldii Binn., but otherwise the 
shell is quite different. In its shape, with the narrowed last whorl, 
it somewhat resembles V. oscariana St., but the lamellae and plicae 
are very different. 


Shell glossy, colorless to milky-whitish, perforate, cylindrical in 
the lower 3-4 whorls, conical or subconical above, with a rather 
acute apex; whorls 6-^-7^, the upper ones rather narrow, the lower 
ones broader and less convex, the last moderately large, ascending 
at the aperture, somewhat narrow but rounded at the base, slightly 
flattened over the palate; surface shining, with slight irregular to sub- 
regular striae; aperture nearly oval, margins approximate; peristome 
everted, not thickened, but there is a slight to rather strong white 
callus in the palate; lamellae and plicae: parieto-angular distinctly 
complex, rather long, moderately elevated, connecting with the peri- 
stome near its outer upper terminus (much as in J3. armifera*), the 
spur 1 of the parietal moderately large; columellar axial spiral, with 
the lower end nearer the aperture, thicker and rather abrupt, or 
somewhat bifurcate; " basal " (inferior columellar) slight or wanting; 

1 In B. armifera and clappi, near the inner end of the parietal lam., there is a 
process, or "spur," outward, that is, towards the periphery, at nearly right 
angles, smaller or larger, generally visible in front view. So far it has been 
seen in no other species ; but in B. contracta there is a protracted, curved part, 
lower than the rest of the lam., and not visible in front view. 


upper and lower palatals regular, an interpalatal in many specimens; 
suprapalatal wanting or quite small. 

Alt. 3.5-4 (rarely 3.2-3.4), diam. 1.9-2.1 mm.; aperture alt. 1.5, 
diam. 1.2 mm. 

Soft parts, seen only from one dried Alabama specimen, soaked, 
very dark from copious, deep brown pigment. Jaw amber-colored, 
strongly curved, rather broad, rounded at the ends, its surface with 
numerous radial rib-striae; the line of the attachment of the tenacu- 
lum strong. 

Radula with 78 transverse rows of 27 (or 29) teeth, r + 6 + 7 (8); 
rachidian rather narrow, with a short mesodont and very small ecto- 
donts (barely visible); laterals bicuspid, with the mesodont as long as 
the plate, the ectodont about one-third as long; the outer posterior 
angle of the plate raised, cusp-like; seventh and eighth with the 
ectodont split in two, somewhat intermediate or ' transition " teeth; 
marginals (9-13) serrate, with the mesodont rather long, thin; the 
fourteenth a barely visible irregular transverse bar, or wanting. As 
this is from a single specimen, there may be some variation. Other 
parts could not be examined. 

Habitat: Knoxville (various localities); eastern Tenn.; Fayette- 
ville and Columbia, Tennessee; Gurley and Huntsville, Alabama; 
Grand Rapids, Michigan; " Ottawa, Illinois."? 

The species shows little variation, except in altitude, with nearly 
the same diameter, and such as are noted in the description. There 
is no tendency towards having the peristome continuous. The types 
are from Knoxville, Tenn., but almost any good specimen seen from 
anywhere might be taken for a type. 

B. clappi is remarkable for its resemblance to some forms of B. 
armifera Say, for a variety of which it has been taken. Yet it is 
quite distinct. Of over 150 specimens carefully compared with more 
than 1500 armifera not one was found doubtful or intermediate. 
The most tangible difference is in the shape of the columellar lamella. 
The shell averages somewhat smaller, the apex is more acute, the 
surface strise are finer and slighter, the lower palatal plica is always 

1 B. armifera shows considerable variation with respect to size and shape, 
and in connection with it, in the shape of the columellar and lower palatal. 
These differences mark two main forms, varieties at least, the shell of one of 
them being more cylindrical aud more or less resembling clappi, but the colu- 
mellar (and lower palatal) are always different. 


regular. 1 When one is once familiar with the species it is easily rec- 
ognized. There is no doubt that specimens are in various collections 
as, and mixed with, armifera, and all such lots should be revised. 

Specimens, as "Pupa armifera" were received in 1886-92 from 
the late Mrs. Geo. Andrews, collected at Knoxville, Tenn., at vari- ' 
ous places, marked: "Garden," "The Thicket," " under stones," 
aggregating 58 armifera, 51 clappi. In a lot of 32 from drift on 
the Duck river, Columbia, Tenn., sent by Prof. B. Shimek in 1892, 
18 were armifera and 14 clappi; 5 specimens, of the latter only, 
from " Columbia, Tenn.," were received from Mr. A. A. Hinkley in 
1887. Lately Mr. Geo. H. Clapp was kind enough to send^ me all 
his armifera for inspection; among them was a lot from " Eastern 
Tennessee," all clappi; one from Gurley, Ala., the same; and one 
from Huntsville, Ala., with 36 armifera and 1 clappi. The latter 
two were collected by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. Mr. Bryant Walker 
also kindly sent me his whole armifera material, 37 lots. Among 
them were clappi from Fayetteville, Tenn., and Huntsville, Ala., 
and, much to my surprise, from Grand Rapids, Mich. Also in a lot 
from " Ottawa, 111.,"? which I owe to Mr. F. C. Baker, both species 
were represented. It seems then that the distribution of B. clappi 
is not only southeastern, as had been supposed, and it may be found 
in other parts of the country also. 

I take pleasure in naming the species in honor of Mr. Geo. H. 

STRANGE SHELLS. One specimen : Umbilicate, cylindrical-tur- 
riculate; whorls 6, moderately convex, the last occupying nearly 
one-half of the altitude; aperture higher than wide, somewhat like 
that of Gionetta lubrica except for the columellar part; peristome 
straight, thin and sharp; no trace of lamellae and plica?; colorless to 
pale horn; shell thin, translucent; surface with fine, irregular striee; 
alt. 4, diam. 2 mm.; aperture alt. 1.5, diam. 1 mm.; umbilicus round, 
of about 0.5 mm. diam., and pervious into the preceding whorls. 
From Rose Hill, near Buffalo, N. Y., collected and sent by Miss 
E. L. Letson in a lot of Bijii. armifera Say, var. What is it? If 
it came from a foreign country, or even from some unexplored part 
of our own continent, one might be tempted to regard it is represent- 
ing a n. sp., and even a new genus. But in all probability it is a 
freak, or monstrous specimen of Bifid, armifera. This had been 
written when I received, from Mr. Clapp, a somewhat corresponding 


specimen, from Gastonburg, Ala. It was plainly a B. armifera, 
large, especially the last wliorl, much larger than the penultimate, 
evidently overgrown, with a very small and slight parietal lam. A 
specimen, corresponding especially with the first-mentioned, of Bifid, 
corticnria, from Jackson county, Ala., was received years ago from 
Mr. H. E. Sargent. 3.1 mm. high; peristome straight and thin; 
aperture without a trace of lamellae. 


Dr. Amos B. Kendig, one of the best known Methodist clergymen 
of New England, died January 20, 1909, at Brookline, Mass. 

Dr. Kendig was born in Lancaster county, Penna., in 1830, re- 
moving to Iowa when a young man. He at first studied law, but 
changed to the ministry, and was ordained in 1852. In the Civil 
War he served for a time as chaplain of the 9th Iowa regiment. 

In 1875 Dr. Kendig came to Boston and became pastor of the 
Monument Square M. E. Church in Charlestown. Later he held 
pastorates in Lynn, "Worcester and Boston ; then going to Brooklyn, 
N. Y., East Orange, N. J., and New York City. 

Dr. Kendig was known for his energy in all that he undertook. 
He was a man of devout Christian character, and he brought to his 
profession the courtesy and the manners of a gentleman of the old 
school. A man of broad culture and sympathy, he took great inter- 
est in scientific matters, and was a member of several learned soci- 
eties. He took up the study of mineralogy at one time, aad made a 
large and fine collection of minerals, which he presented to a college 
in Iowa. Later he made a study of land shells of the world, built 
up a large and valuable collection, and accumulated a library. In 
1903 he decided to give up the study of shells, his collection going 
to the Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Dr. Kendig had many warm friends among conchologists. He is 
survived by two daughters, Mrs. George F. Kellogg and Mrs. Silas 




Dr. A. E. Ortmann's article, relative to the breeding seasons of 
the Unionif/ce, will doubtless be received as an interesting and valu- 
able contribution to the subject, and in order to extend its usefulness, 
so far as my limited ability will permit, I beg to present a condensed 
report of my observations, made from 11*05 to 1908 inclusive. I, too, 
have noticed some apparent variations in the breeding periods of 
individuals, as also in the species, in different years. Possibly this 



difference may be due more or less to difference in the seasons 
(weather) from year to year. 

The facts already obtained have an important bearing on legislative 
action already taken or contemplated for the protection and preser- 
vation of our fresh-water mussels. Unlike the song and game birds 
and the mammals, no close season will serve to protect all of the spe- 
cies. The taking of all clams under the fully adult size must be pro- 
hibited to prevent their extermination by pearl-hunters and button 


The letter g indicates gravid individuals, n denoting that none 
were found gravid, gn that some females examined were gravid, others 
not gravid, either among specimens taken at the same time or in the 
same month in different years. 


S S5 


C3 g J3 


1 1 

fe * - 

^ s a 

3 u 
C f u 

S-i t> fl 
P< 03 g 

^> bfl -^ 

n V Q) 

O O <U 

H, fe & 

<l S - 


o ^ o 

Anodonta cataracta Say. . . . 

g g g 

gn gn n 

n n g 

g g g 

Anodonta implicata Say. . . . 

g g 

g g n 

n n g 

g g g 

Anodonta undulata Say. , . . 


n n 


Alasmidonta undulata Say. . . 


Alasmidonta varicosa Lamarck. 


Lampsilis cariosus Say .... 

g g 

n g g 

g g 


Lampsilis ochraceus Say . . . 

g g g 

Lampsilis radiatus Gmelin , . 

g g 

g g g 

,g g g 

g g g 

Lampsilis venLricosus Barnes. . 


Lampsilis ligamentinus Lamarck. 

g g 

Margaritana margarilifera L. . 





Quadrula multiplicata 


Quadrula perplicata Conrad. . 


Quadrula trapezoides Lea . . . 


Strophitus edcntuius Say. . . . 


Symphynota viridis Conrad . . 


Unio complanatus Solander . . 

n n 

gn g g 

g gn n 

n n n 

or cr cr 

gff cr 

orn & Of 

grr p 


a p p r o x i- 

fe o 

& & 

Unio northamptonensis Lea. -{ 

mately as 
U. compla- 



Unio occidens Lea 


Unio rectus Lamarck 


Anodonta footiana Lea .... 


Anodonla subcylindraceus Lea . 


Lampsilis superiorensis Marsh . 










VOL. XXII. MABOH, 1909. No. 11. 



During the past two summers the writer has had opportunity to 
collect in various places in Massachusetts, and Pisidium has yielded 
some good series. The species have just been determined by Dr. 
Sterki, with the following results: 

D;ilton. in the Berkshire Hills a brief visit in early spring 
yielded compressum and abditum. 

Newton, Upper Falls, gave at one visit variabile, aequilaterale, 
pauper culum, affine and fe.rrugineum. 

Woburn, in a small outlet to Horn Pond, had compressum, abdi- 
tum and ajfine. 

Concord, near the famous battlefield, shows variabile, abditum, 

Wareliam is at the head of Buzzards Bay, almost on Cape Cod. 
It is an important place in cranberry culture. Considerable mate- 
rial was obtained from ditches in the cranberry bogs. The species 
variabile and abditum both show local peculiarities; ferrugineum also 
occurs in the bogs. A trout brook in the woods gave excellent sets 
of variabile, with abdifum quite rare. 

Thi', Agawam River at East Wareliam is one of the richest col- 
lecting grounds I know. Pisidium is not abundant, but is peculiar. 
Dr. Sterki writes of variabile: " Rather different from the common 
form, and representing a variety if found at other places," another 
form similar yet distinct. 

Danvers, my present home, proves an excellent region for this 


genus. A few tiny brooks are teeming with fresh-water shells, and 
the town has the following species: compression, variabile, abditum, 
ventricosum., ferrugineum succineum, tieglectum, aequilaterale, ferru- 
gineum and splendidutum, " for the first time seen in large numbers 
from Massachusetts." A few forms not quite settled may show more 
of interest. A more careful search next summer may yield even 
more species from this interesting locality. 



These shells were found in the crevices of the limestone rocks 
bordering the Rio Balsas, and the ravines leading to it, and about 
1000 feet above the river, or at an altitude of 2000-3000 feet. No 
living shells were seen, and limited time prevented a very thorough 


The specimens have the more minute sculpture very beautifully 
developed, agreeing with Strebel's account of the type specimen. 
There is also a coarser form in some other localities, which seems to 
be more abundant in collections. 


A series of eleven specimens shows great variation in size and 
shape of the umbilicus, and better preserved examples might possibly 
show the presence of more than one species in the lot. The extremes 
in size are 7.3 mm. diam. with 5 whorls, and 11 mm. with 5^ whorls. 


Typical examples of this well-marked species. 

HOLOSPIRA BARTSCHI I). Sp. PI. Vlii, figs. 5, 6. 

The shell is white, imperforate, oblong, widest at the eighth or 
ninth whorl, rapidly tapering to the last whorl; terminal cone short, 
the apex mamillar. Two embryonic whorls smooth, gray, project- 
ing, the first whorl wider than the second; following three whorls 


sculptured with slender rihlets parted by wider intervals; the riblets 
then become irregular and weaker; at and below the shoulder they 
disappear, and the whorls are nearly smooth and flat to the last, 
which is ribbed, the ribs rather strong but irregular on the last half 
whorl, which is straightened, tapers to the well-rounded base, and is 
very shortly produced forward beyond the preceding whorl. The 
aperture is very shortly pi ri form, upper margin straightened with a 
slight callus within near the outer angle; other margins well curved 
and expanded. Internal axis rather wide throughout, widest above, 
smooth, its walls slightly concave within each whorl. At the end of 
the penultimate whorl there is a barely noticeable swelling of the 
axis, hardly visible in some specimens, and with no superposed callus. 

Length 14.8, greatest diam. 5.8 mm.; whorls 14. 

Length 15, greatest diam. 5.9 mm.; whorls 14. 

Length 18.25, greatest diam. 5.3 mm.; whorls 13|. 

The length is estimated, since all of the examples have the peri- 
stome more or less broken basally. While very " top-heavy," it is 
less obese than H. imbricata v. Marts., which is strongly ribbed 
throughout. No other species of similar shape has the same axial 
structure. In having a large internal pillar, H. bartschi resembles 
H.fusca v. Marts. Neither species is a typical Haplocion, but they 
agree with no other of the defined sections of Holospira. 

This species is named for Mr. Paul Bartsch, author of an excel- 
lent paper on Holospira and related genera. 


One example, 13x5 mm., agrees well with a cotype of this spe- 
cies, received from the National Museum through the courtesy of 
Dr. Ball. H. gealei H. Ad., of which the internal structure is 
unknown, may prove to be allied. It is not unlike goldmani exter- 
nally, so far as can be gathered from Adams' inadequate description. 



The figured type of the genus Pholadomya Sowerby is the recent 
P. Candida Sow., from the island of Tortola in the West Indies, 
described in 1823. A large number of fossil species are known, but 


during the eighty-four years which have elapsed since Sowerby 
characterized the genus, only one more recent species which can 
confidently be affirmed to belong to the typical section of the genus 
has been described. This is the P. loreni Jeffreys, 1881. /". Can- 
dida has its hinge composed of a pair of nymphs sustaining the 
external ligament, and in front of the nymphs a triangular area, 
directly under the beal<s, which supported an internal resilium, some 
fibers of which still adhere to the specimen in the National Museum. 
The anterior edge of the resiliifer is raised into a rib-like prominence, 
which is what in descriptions of the genus is usually referred to as 
an "obscure tooth." It is not a tooth, but a reinforcement of the 
pit or chondrophore. Not having a specimen for study in 1895, my 
description of this hinge from figures (Trans. Wagner Inst., iii, p. 
530) is to this extent inaccurate. It is true that Verrill in 1881, 
and Locard in 1898, have described two bivalves under the names 
of Pholadomya arata and P. africana (Fischer MS.), but these do 
not belong to the typical section of the group and may belong in a 
wholly distinct genus. They are wedge-shaped, truncate shells with 
the chondrophore obsolete, and having an aspect which leads one to 
doubt whether the resilium was developed at all in either of them. 
Their soft parts are wholly unknown. It is therefore a matter of 
especial interest that in recent work of the U. S. S. Albatross in the 
N. W. Pacific, Aug. 10, 1906, at station 4904, in 107 fathoms, a 
right valve of Pholadomya was obtained, which I now propose to 


Shell resembling an unusually plump specimen of Mya arenaria 
in general form, white, very thin, the beaks near the anterior third; 
inner layer of the shell pearly; beaks low, slightly prosocoelous; 
anterior margin of the valve evenly rounded, posterior a little 
attenuated and with a slight gape but also rounded; hinge-line thin 
with a short, narrow nymph, the chondrophore also narrow, directed 
obliquely backward, under and nearly parallel with the nymph; 
interior polished when fresh, the specimen rather dull, almost con- 
cealing the pallial sinus, which is less deep than in P. Candida. The 
muscular impressions are obscure, but seem to agree with those of 
hat species; exterior largely, finely granulose, like many Thracias, 
sculptured with more or less evident lines of growth, and with abo 


nine low radial ridges, starting from the beak, near which there are 
some intercalary ridges which become obsolete about the middle of 
the disk; both ends of the shell are destitute of radial sculpture for 
about one-fourth the total length; there is no defined dorsal area, 
lunule or escutcheon. Length of valve 48; length behind the brak 
30; height 34; height of beak above the hinge-line 2.5; (double) 
diameter 26 mm. The sparse radial sculpture in the middle of the 
shell is almost exactly like that of P. Candida, except that in the 
latter there are obscure nodosities on the ridges and no intercalaries, 
while both ends have obsolete radial lines. In one specimen of P. 
Candida there are eleven ridges. The sculpture of P. arata and 
africana is quite different. The base of P. pacifica is gently arcu- 
ate. The specimen is registered in the U. S. Nat. Mus. as No. 
110, 456. It may be added that the granulation of the surface in 
P. Candida is much less dense and conspicuous. 



Every student of North American fresh-water shells is familiar 
with the name of Dr. E. R. Showalter. He collected, probably, 
three-fourths of the Alabama Phuroceratidce described by Lea, and 
not a few of the Unionidce ; many of Anthony's species came from 
him, and he corresponded for years with Lewis, Hartman and other 
eminent conchologists. Dr. Showalter resided at Union town, Perry 
county, and afterwards at Point Clear, near Mobile, and he made 
extended excursions to the Cahaba, Coosa and other rivers of the 
Alabama system. His work, interrupted by the Civil War, was 
taken up again about 1867, though not apparently with the same 
enthusiasm. Until Aldrich took up the task, Showalter was almost 
the only man in this rich field, and his specimens are scattered 
through all our collections. 

Few naturalists know that Dr. Showalter had a collection of his 
own, and fewer still imagine that it is in existence. It had, in fact, 
a narrow escape from destruction. After Dr. Showalter's death the 
shells were stored for years under his house at Point Clear. Like 


most southern houses, this is supported by corner pillars, the space 
beneath being open to the winds and often to driving rains. Sotne 
of the boxes rotted, specimens fell out and labels decayed; when at 
length the collection became the property of the Alabama Geological 
Survey, portions of it had literally to be scooped up with a shovel. 
The condition was not encouraging, but such things always look worse 
than they really are. No doubt some specimens and labels were 
irretrievably lost, but by far the greater part ot the collection was 
saved intact, and for this we must thank the able director of the 
Geological Survey, Dr. Eugene A. Smith. From the first he was 
keenly alive to the value of the Showalter shells, but with the means 
at his disposal he could do no more than preserve them from further 
harm; this he has done conscientiously. For years the collection 
has been stored in the State Museum at Tuscaloosa, but it could not 
be made available to students. 

Some months ago Mr. Bryant Walker asked me to examine the 
Showalter collection and, if possible, catalogue the TJnionida. Dr. 
Smith placed the shells unreservedly in my hands and forwarded the 
work by every possibly means; ultimately he asked me to arrange the 
whole collection, and this I am now doing. 

Later on I hope to give a more extended account of this historical 
collection. It is much richer than I had imagined, and nearly all 
can be saved to science. For the student of Alabama Pkuroceratidce 
its importance can hardly be overestimated; species which have been 
among the rarest in our collections are here represented by hun- 
dreds, sometimes thousands, of good specimens, and these, if not 
exactly cotypes, are at least the lots from which types were taken. 
Generally speaking, the shells are correctly labeled, far better than 
PleuroceratiJa in the majority of our cabinets. The Uiiionidce and 
land shells are also important. Dr. Showalter had a general collec- 
tion of no great extent, and this will be useful for educational 

Every naturalist will be glad to know that the Showalter collection 
can be saved, and that it will soon be housed in the new museum 
building. The liberal character of Dr. Smith is a sufficient guar- 
antee that the specimens will be available to every true student. 
State University, Tuscaloosa, Ala. t Feb. 9, 1909. 




The month of July, 1905, I spent at various points in Minnesota, 
and incidentally did some collecting of mollusca; and since there has 
been so little published on the mollusca of Minnesota, I contribute 
my mite. 

The following is a complete list of my catch. At Thief River 
Falls and White Earth Lake I collected several days; at the other 
localities but a few hours, so that this list cannot be taken as a com- 
plete fauna of either locality. At the time of my collecting, the 
rivers and lakes were very high, which will account for the scarcity 
of fluviatile species. 

In order to shorten the names of the localities I will say that 
Halma is in Marshall county; Anita and Thief River Falls in Red 
Lake county; White Earth Lake in Becker county; Lake Harriett, 
near Minneapolis, in Hennepin county; and Cannon Lake in Rice 

Polygyra muUilineata (Say). Minneapolis. 

Circinaria concava (Binn.). Minneapolis. 

Vilrona limpida Gld. Thief River Falls. 

Vitrea hammonis (Strom.). Thief River Falls, White Earth 

Vitrea binneyana (Morse). Thief River Falls, White Earth 

Euconulus fulvus (Miiller). Thief River Falls, White Earth 

Euconulus cher sinus polyyyratus Pils. Thief River Falls, White 
Earth Lake, Anita. 

Zonitoides arborea (Say). Thief River Falls, White Earth 

Zonitoides minuscula (Binney). Thief River Falls. 

Zonitoides milium (Morse). Thief River Falls, White Earth 

Pyramidula allernata (Say). White Earth Lake, Minneapolis. 

Pyramidida cronkhitei- anthonyi Pilsbry. White Earth Lake, 
Cannon Lake, Anita. 

Helicodiscus parallelus (Say). Thief River Falls, White Earth 
Lake, Anita. 


Punctum pyc/mczum (Drap.). Thief River Falls. 

Succinea retusa Lea. White Earth Lake, var. Thief River Falls. 

Succinea ovalis Say. Thief River Falls, var. Minneapolis. 

Succinea avara Say. Thief River Falls, Cannon Lake. 

Succinea avara vermeta Say. White Earth Lake. 

Strobilops virgo (Pils.). Thief River Falls. White Earth Lake. 

Bifidaria contracta (Say). Thief River Falls, White Earth Lake. 

Bifidaria pentodon (Say). Thief River Falls. 

Bifidaria tappaniana (C. B. Adams). White Earth Lake. 

Bifidaria holzingeri Sterki. White Earth Lake. 

Cochlicopa lubrica (Miiller). Thief River Falls. Also a form 
which seems to be G. 1. morseana Doherty. 

Vallonia cosfata (Miiller). Thief River Falls, White Earth Lake. 

Carychium exile canadense Clapp. Thief River Falls, White 
Earth Lake. 

Lampsilis luteola Lam. Thief River Falls. 

Anodonta kennicotti Lea. Thief River Falls. 

Unio gibbosus Barnes. Thief River Falls. 

Quadrula lachrymosa Lea. Thief River Falls. 

Spl cerium simile Say. Lake Harriett. 

Sphcerium occidentals Prime. Thief River Falls. 

Musculium jayanum Prime. Thief River Falls. 

Pisidium sp. Thief River Falls. 

Gampeloma subsolidum Anthony. Mississippi River, Minneapolis. 

Cantpeluma rufum Hald. Lake Harriett. 

Gampeloma milesii Lea. Thief River Falls. 

Valcata sincera daniehi Walker. Cannon Lake. 

Valvata tricarinata Say. Cannon Lake. 

Valvata tricarinata simplex GUI. Cannon Lake. 

Amnicola limosa Say. Var. Cannon Lake. 

Pliysa ancillaria Say. Lake Harriett. 

Physa yyrina Say. Lake Harriett. 

Pliysa gyrina liildrethiana Lea. Thief River Falls. 

Physa qyriiia oleacea Tryon. White Earth Lake. 

Aplexa liypnorutn (Linn.). Thief River Falls, Halma. 

Lymnaa stagnolis appressa Say. Thief River Falls, White Earth 
Lake, Halma, Lake Harriett. 

Lymi/cen stagnalis var. Lake Harriett. 

Lymnaa obrussa Say. Thief River Falls, Cannon Lake. 


Lyrnncea obrussa modicella Say. Thief River Falls. 

Lyimiaa sterkii Baker. Tliief River Falls. 

Lymneen coperata Say. Thief River Falls, Anita. 

Lymncea palustris Miiller. Thief River Falls, Cannon Lake, 
Halrna, Anita. 

Pbinorbis bicarinntus Say. Lake Harriett, Cannon Lake. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. Thief River Falls, Cannon Lake, Hal ma, 
Lake Harriett. 

Plunorbis campanulatus Say. Thief River Falls, White Earth 
Lake, Cannon Lake, Lake Harriett. 

Planorbis Itirsulus GUI. Cannon Lake. 

Plunorbis parvus Say. Thief River Falls, Anita. 

Segmentina armiyera Say. Thief River Falls. 



Among a number of Cypraea from N. E. Queensland recently 
received there occur two varieties, one of (7. xcmthodon Gray and 
one of C. miliaris GmeL, which, though undoubtedly belonging to 
these species, possess such marked varietal characters as to merit 
notice. I therefore venture to describe them, as follows: 

Cyprcea xanthodon Gray, var. carnicolor, n. var. 

Dorsal surface flesh-colored without bands, indistinctly freckled 
with pale rusty-red; base white; posterior and median columellar 
denticles red, anterior columellar denticles white; denticles on lip 
pure white throughout; thinner and mor pirit'orm than the type; 
the posterior extremity of the outer lip is more produced, while that 
of the columellar lip is less so than in the typical form; moreover, 
there is no dark blotch on the columellar anterior extremity of the 
dorsal surface. 

Alt. 24, diam. maj. 14 mm. 

Hab. : N. E. Queensland. 

The above has all the appearance of a deep-water shell. 

Cyprceri miliaris GmeL, var. nit-ea, n. var. 

Differing from the typical form in having the dorsal surface 
grayish-white, gradually shading to pure white towards the base, 


spotted indistinctly with numerous small white spots; there is scarcely 
any sign of lateral punctation on the columellar side. 

Alt. 35, diam. maj. 22 mm. 

Hab. : N. E. Queensland. 


commenced in the Fox river this last summer. One or two pearls 
were found by accident before. Now several tons of the shells have 
been taken out, perhaps as much as ten tons. Many of the nearby 
residents have done some hunting for sport, but two parties made a 
business of pearl-fishing, and perhaps worked 90 days. They re- 
ceived $1,800 for the pearls taken out. Two pearls were valued at 
$GOO each. Jewelers from New York city wrote to a firm in Aurora, 
111., telling them to buy all the Fox river pearls they could get, as 
they were of the finest quality. Thus the craze spread late in the 
fall until, I am told, one could count fifty persons in sight hunting 
clams. They worked until the law to protect clams during breeding 
season went into effect L. A. KEENE, Waterman, 111. 

PLANORBIS BICARINATUS In order to complete the records of 
distribution of Planorbis bicarinatus, records, preferably accompanied 
by specimens, are desired from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Florida, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, South Dakota, Wyoming, 
Utah, Nevada, Arizona and California. The data obtained will be 
published in THE NAUTILUS. BRYANT WALKER, 205 Moffatt 
Building, Detroit, Mich. 

DR. W. HOYLE, Director of the Manchester Museum, has been 
appointed Director of the National Museum of Wales at Cardiff. 


By Paul Bartsch (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 34, pp. 67- 
113, pi. 11-14, 1909). An interesting and valuable paper giving in 
detail the work done by various authors, followed by descriptions of 
all the genera, subgenera and species. Under Pyramidella are 
placed two subgenera Eulimella and Syrnola. One new species, 


P, (Syrnola t) wtnkleyi, Is described from Branford, Conn. Turbo- 
nilla is divided into five subgenera Ptycheuliuiella, Chemnitzia, 
Turbonilla, Strict urbonilla and Fyrgiscus. A new subspecies, T. 
(Strioturbonilla) busfnana abyssicola, is described from 1290-1.537 
fathoms off Martha's Vineyard. T. verrillt, vinece, branfordensis, 
buteonis, winkleyi, senilis, sumneri, cascoensis, whiteavesi and edward- 
ensis of the submenus Pyrgiseus are described as new; the last two are 
from Prince Edward Island. T. mighelsi is proposed for T. costu- 
lata Verr. 1873 (non Risso 1826). Under Odostomia six subgenera 
are recognized Cbrysallida, Evalina, lolaea, Menestho, Odostomia 
and Liostomia. The following are new : 0. ( Chrysallida] bushiana 
and willisf, 0. (Evalina) winkleyi, 0. (lolaea) hendersoni, 0. {Men- 
est/to') tnfida bedequrnsis and bisuturalis orilensis. 0. morseana is 
proposed in place of 0. sufcnta Verr. 1880 (non A. Adams 1860). 
The Pyramis striatula Couthouy forms the type of a new genu8, 

Couthouyella. There are excellent figures of nearly all the species 

C. W. J. 

OF THE TEREDINID.E OR SHIP- WORMS. By Charles P. Sigerfoos. 
(Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, xxvii, pp. 193-231, pi. vii- 
yxi.) Xylotrya gouldi, Teredo dilatata and 7. navalis from Beaufort, 
N. C., have been investigated. T. navalis carries the eggs in the 
gills, but in the other species they are laid free into and fertilized in 
the water. In one case T. dilatata was estimated to produce one 
hundred million eggs. The egg develops into a typical small bivalve 
having a swimming organ (velum). Throughout the summer these 
may be found crawling over wooden structures in search of favorable 
crevices for attachment. Once attached by a single long byssus 
thread, the larva loses the velum, scrapes away the surface of the 
wood with the ventral edges of the shell-valves, and the loot develops 
into a pestle-shaped organ which assists the shell in burrowing. On 
the external surface of the valves at the anterior edges is formed the 
first row of small teeth, which at this and later stages are the 
mechanical agents by which the animal bores into the wood. This 
transformation has taken place within two days from the time the 
larva has settled, and afterwards the animal rapidly becomes an 
elongate ship-worm. Evidence is given showing that the ship-worm 
may reach a length of 4 feet and diameter of 1 inch in about one 
year. The sexes are separate in adult ship-worms, but young indi- 
viduals of X. gouldi are frequently hermaphroditic, in which case the 
male cells develop first. The anatomy is very fully described and 
illustrated. This timely paper, a valuable addition to our knowl- 
edge of Pelecypod morphology, can be obtained of the Bureau of 
Fisheries. H. A. P. 



The Brooklyn Conchological Club mourns the loss of its esteemed 
member, Mr. David W. Ferguson, whose death occurred on Feb- 
ruary 7th, in his 75th year. 

Mr. Ferguson began collecting shells in his eighth year, continued 
up to the time of his death, and became one of the most discrimi- 
nating collectors in New York city. His knowledge of shells and 
ability to recall names was remarkable. In his early life he enjoyed 
the friendship of Bland and the elder Sowerby, and also of Dr. Jay, 
Stuart, Steward, Constable and all the collectors in New York of the 
last half of the 19th century. One of his most intimate friends in 
later years was the late Sloman Rons, who described several unusual 
species in his collection in THE NAUTILUS some time ago. Mr. 
G. B. Sowerby named a large white cone, Conus fergnsonii, which 
Mr. Ferguson had sent him for identification. It is a fine and dis- 
tinct species. 

Mr. Ferguson was also a collector of Indian relics, and at the 
time of his death possessed a very large collection, all local to Long 
Island and nearby New Jersey. The region where these were ob- 
tained is now entirely built over, rendering the collection quite valu- 
able at the present time. 


We regret to announce the death of Lorenzo Gordin Yates, of 
Santa Barbara, California. Born in England, January 8, 1837, he 
came to the United States in 1853. He taught in the public schools 
of Wisconsin, and studied medicine and dentistry. Later, Dr. Yates 
was on the staff of the Whitney Geological Survey of California. 
He was especially interested in conchology, mineralogy and botany, 
and published numerous papers on various zoological and botanical 
subjects. His principal papers relating to conchology are: "The 
Mollusca of Sanla Barbara County, California," and "New Shells 
from the Santa Barbara Channel " (Bull. No. 2, Santa Barbara Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 1890). A new variety of Helix corpenteri from southern 
California (NAUTILUS, vol. iv, pp. 51, 54, 1890), and other notes. 
He was a fellow of the Linnaean Society of London, member of the 
Southern California Academy of Sciences, of the Geological Society 
of America, etc. 


VOL. XXII. APRIL, 19O9. No. 12. 



In 1906-07 Senor Don Joaquin Gonzales Hidalgo published in 
the Memorias of the Real Academia de Ciencias, Madrid, a useful 
review of a monographic character, without figures, on the genus 
Cypraa, in which the author includes Trivia. 

In looking over the species of the west coast of America, and 
referring to the above-mentioned paper, some questions were raised 
in my mind, leading to the following notes being recorded. 

CYPR^EA EXANTHEMA L. and var. cervinetta Kiener. Both the 
typical form and the variety are found on both sides of the Isthmus 
of Panama, and no constant differences seem to exist between 
Atlantic and Pacific specimens, when a sufficiently large series is 

CYPR^EA ROBERTSI Hidalgo, 1906. This name is proposed for 
the well-known C. punctulata Gray, 1824; not of Gmelin 1791. 

CYPR^EA ANNETTE Dall, n. nom. The name C. soiverbyi ap- 
plied by Kiener in 1845, to a well-known West American species, 
is pre-occupied by Anton (1839) and Gray (1832). Kiener figured 
a worn specimen under the name of C. ferruginosa, a name which 
had also been used by Gmelin, 1791, for another species. Sowerby 
in the Conchological Illustrations (1837) referred the C. sowerbyi 
Kiener, to the C. zonata Lamarck, 1810; but the latter, though 
allied, is distinct and comes from the African coast. I may note 
that the C. zonata of Lamarck and Sowerby (after Chemnitz) had 


already been named C. zonaria by Gmelin (1791). Our shell being 
nameless, I propose to call it G. annettne. 

CTPR^A CAPUT-DKACONIS Melvill, lives on the reefs at Easter 
Island and the locality " Hong Kong " is probably erroneous. 

CTPR^EA MEXIOANA Stearns, is omitted by Hidalgo. 

TRIVIA CALIFORNIANA Gray, (1828) was inaccurately mono- 
graphed by Reeve under the name of T. calif ornica ; which, having 
been inadvertently adopted in Carpenter's British Association re- 
ports, has been more or less commonly in use ever since. 

TRIVIA COSTISPTNCTATA Gaskoin, 1870, reported from Cali- 
fornia, if correctly located, is probably only a mutation of T. radians 

reported from Vancouver Island by Hidalgo, but his authority was 
doubtless inaccurate, as neither species is known north of latitude 
34 30' N., and even T. californiana is not yet reported north of 
Bodega Bay in latitude 38 15'. 

It is much to be desired that Californian naturalists will deter- 
mine from the living animals whether the important differences 
stated to exist between Trivia and Cyprcea are really as stated ; 
since, if confirmed, the two genera can hardly be retained in the 
same family. 

Erato is not included in Hidalgo's lists, though so closely related 
to Trivia; but I may add that since describing E. albescens in 1905 
(NAUTILUS, xviii, p. 124) the details of the station have come to 
hand and it seems that the type specimen was dredged in 30-41 
fathoms, sand, off the western Santa Barbara Islands, California. 



Shell small, slender, cylindrical or slightly attenuated above, with 
an obtusish apex, perforate; whorls 5^, subequal, the apical ones 
comparatively large; colorless to pale or reddish-horn, 1 transparent; 
surface shining, with very fine, crowded, subregular striae, on the 
apex microscopically rugulose; the last whorl ascending above, some- 
what flattened at the base close to the aperture, keel-like further 

1 So far aa can be seen from drift specimens. 


back, somewhat flattened over the palate, with a slight to strong, not 
sharp, crest behind the margin, with two spiral impressions, one over 
the lower palatal and another near the base; aperture broadly ellip- 
tical to almost circular, peristome continuous or its ends closely 
approximate and connected by a raised callus, well everted, with a 
slight to rather strong lip thickening; lamellae and plicae, parietal and 
angular, well differentiated, connected, large, the angular connecting 
with the peristome; columellar complex, with a lower axial and an 
upper horizontal part, " basal " a short, transverse lamella, rather 
abrupt; lower palatal far remote from the margin, but visible in front 
view, rather long, lamellar, thin, upper palatal somewhat less deep- 
seated, close to the lower, somewhat oblique, shorter. 

Alt. 2-2.4, average 2.2, diam. 0.9 mm.; aperture alt. 0.8 mm. 
Soft parts not seen. 

Habitat: Foothills of Plumosa Range, about 8 miles east of 
Quartzsite, Yuma county, Arizona, in drift, in company with B. 
hordeacella Pils. and B. tuba intuscostata Clapp, discovered by Mr. 
Geo. H. Clapp, who states that the ratio of bilamellata and horde- 
acella, in the drift, was almost exactly 1:16. Large numbers of 
both species were found. 

B. bilamellata is very distinct and different from all other Bifi- 
daria. At first sight it might be taken for hordeacella for its size 
and shape, but a glance at the aperture is sufficient to recognize it, 
and also the posterior aspect is different. With respect to the peri- 
stome it approaches B. ashmuni; the parieto-angular lamella is of the 
same formation, and the palatal plicae are similar but not so deep- 
seated; the "basal" is the same as in B. dattiana. The n. sp. is 
very interesting by the combination of features of apparently widely 
different species, and appears to be intermediate between two groups. 


Figs. 1, 2, 3. Ashmunella kochii Clapp. Type, No. 5765, coll. 
G. H. Clapp. Description on p. 77. 

Fig. 4. Bifidaria clappi Sterki. Cotype, Knoxville, Tenn., No. 
98279, A. N. S. P. Description on p. 108. 

Figs. 5, 6. Holospira bartschi P. & C. Two cotypes, coll. A. N. 
S. P. and G. H. Clapp. Description on p. 114. 

Fig. 7. Bifidaria bilamellata Sterki & Clapp. Front view of a 
cotype, No. 98268, A. N. S. P. Description on p. 126. 




During February and March, 1908, it was my good fortune to 
spend nearly fifty days on the island of Sicily, and I improved every 
opportunity which presented itself for mollusk hunting. 

Soon after my arrival in Palermo I called upon the Marquis de 
Monterosato, and obtained from him much valuable information in 
regard to localities of Sicilian shells. I also viewed his unrivaled 
collection of Mediterranean shells, which is especially rich in Sicilian 

After a few weeks in Palermo the following towns were visited in 
the order named Girgenti, Siracuse, Taormina and Messina. Ex- 
cursions were made from each, but at no time were shells taken 
more than twelve miles from the sea. From the above will be no- 
ticed that the northern, southern and eastern coasts were visited; but 
the interior and western mountains were untouched. The mountains 
in the west are exceedingly rich in peculiar species, including the 
most striking of the latticed Clausilia. Each mountain and plain on 
the island contains its own species or group of species. 

Monte Pellegrino, above Palermo, supports a rich snail fauna. 
The mountain is largely composed of perforated limestone, in the re- 
cesses of which a large proportion of the land mollusca live. At the 
base of Pellegrino in the grass live Helix hamilcaris Kobelt. Under 
stones at the base of the cliffs Ferussacia folliculus Gron. Half way 
up the trail Helix mazzulli Jan. and Helix sicana Fer. first appear 
and extend nearly to the summit. Within a hundred feet of the 
summit Clausilia grohmanniana Phil., which was rare below, I 
found in comparative abundance. Near the signal station on the 
top Helix macrostoma Muhlf. , one of the few Sicilian Campylceas, 
was discovered in crevices of the rock. Thus these species appa- 
rently prefer various elevations above the sea. 

The most remunerative season for terrestrial mollusks in Sicily is 
during November and December, when the rainy season is usually 
at its height. At this time every wall is said to teem with shell life. 
But as 1 found at Girgenti even the dry season is not unpopular with 
land mollusca. On the first limb of a single almond tree I counted 
no less than two hundred and fifty specimens of Helix. The opercu- 


lates though avoid the direct rays of the sun, living under boulders 
among the ruins. Siracusan land shells adapt themselves to the dry 
surroundings by living at the edge of the cliffs overhanging the sea. 

Upon reaching Taormina and the base of Etna, I was surprised to 
find the terrestrial mollusca reduced to a minority. The country 
here reaches the wildest form, deep crevices and small canyons in- 
tersect the mountains and the vegetation is luxurious in early spring. 
The scarcity of land mollusca is accounted for in the prevalence of 
lava instead of limestone formations, which are so characteristic of 
the rest of Sicily. 

In the vicinity of Taormina a few small permanent streams were 
explored. In these, under stones, in swiftly running water, two 
species of Ancylus were collected. The fresh -water genera are not 
well represented on the island; but near Siracuse the Anapo, a small 
permanent river, supports a few peculiar species. Many of the Sici- 
lian streams after heavy rains are raging torrents, which, under nor- 
mal conditions, run underground or in the dry season cease. The 
absence of mud is also unfavorable for molluscan life. The Anapo 
rises in a pool of considerable depth, is uniform in width throughout, 
and after many windings empties into the Bay of Siracuse a few 
miles below its source. Its banks are lined with papyrus, on the 
roots of which Amnicola, Bithinia and other small genera live. Of 
the lakes in the south I visited none, partly because of their inacces- 
sible location, but parti cularly on account of their unhealthiness 
The fauna of each is in the main peculiar, if we include extreme 

Romagnala, a small town near Palermo, was found an excellent 
station for marine species. Facing the open sea, the shore combines 
sand and algae-covered rocks. Over sixty species were secured in a 
tew hours after a storm, the small species in fresh condition and the 
larger often containing the animal. Two days later the sand had 
covered the rocks, and it was with difficulty that ten species were 
secured. At Siracuse the bay yielded a few marine, and the rocky 
coast many genera not found at Palermo. Cypraa larida L. and 
Fusus syracusana L. are seldom found near shore at Siracuse, but 
are frequently brought in by the fishermen. The violence of the surf, 
combined with the absence of drift on the beaches at Taormina, 
prevented frequent collecting. Argonauta argo L. and Calliostoma 
conulus L. occurred, which were not noticed in the north. Being in 


close proximity with the Straits of Messina, a number of shells com- 
mon at Messina were found at Taormina and Giardine. 

At Messina there is an excellent market, in which at 5 a. no. each 
morning a surprising variety of fish are offered for sale. The early 
start required is amply repaid. The octopus, Polypus vulgaris L., is 
considered as an especial delicacy as food, both in Sicily and Italy. 

In preparing the following list I have determined, for condensa- 
tion, to omit separate annotations. For convenience I have arranged 
the Helices in alphabetical order, excepting Leucochroa. 

For the identifications I am indebted to Marquis Monterosato, Mr. 
C. Payton Gwyer, Mr. E. A. Smith, of the British Museum, and for 
difficult fresh-water species to Mr. Bryant Walker. The Malacolog- 
ical Laboratory, Paris, has also given free use of its valuable library. 

Argonauta argo L. Taormina. 

Sepia officinalis L. Taormina, Palermo. 

Poiretia algira Brug. Taormina, Girgenti. 

Daudebardia brevipes Drap. Palermo. 

Hyalinia suburbana Mont. Palermo. 

Vitrea hydatina Rossm. Palermo. 

Leucochroa candidissima Drap. Girgenti. 

Helix acuta L., apicina Lam., conica Dr., conoidea Dr., muralis 
Miill., pisana Miill.. squalida Monts. Siracuse. 

Helix agrigantina Ad. Girgenti. 

Helix andromica Monts. Taormina. 

Helix gregaria Ziegl., moesta Parr. Palermo. 

Helix aperta Born, hamilcaris Kob., macrostoma, mazzuli Jan., 
sicana Fer., variabilis Drap., vermiculata Miill. Monte Pellegrino. 

Helix florida Ziegl., ingoi Cafici. 

Ena pupa Brug. Girgenti, Palermo. 

Pupa avenacea Brug., P. philippii, Cantr. Taormina. 

Clausilia agrigantina Brug. Girgenti. 

Clausilia affinis Ph., C. affinis Ph. var. taurominica Monts. 

Clausilia familiaris Monts., C. grohmanniana Phil. Monte Pel- 


Clausilia septemplicata Phil. Monreale. 
Clausilia syracusana Phil. Siracuse. 
Rumina decollata Linn. Well distributed. 
Ferussacia folliculus Gron. Monte Pelligrino. 


Ferussacia vescoi Bgt. Girgenti. 
Succinea megalonyxia Bourg. Siracuse. 
Succinea pfeifferi Ross. Palermo. 
Alexia myosotis Drap. Siracuse. 

Ancylus costulatus Kust. Sigone River near Taormina. 
Ancylus striatus Q. & G. Above Letojanni near Taormina. 
Lymnaea benoiti Bourg., L. palustris Mull. var. anapensis Monts. 
Anapo, Siracuse. 

Lymnaea truncatula Miill. Palermo. 

Planorbis cristatus L. Mondello near Palermo. 

Planorbis subangulatus Phil. Siracuse. 

Physa cyanea Pirajno. Anapo, Siracuse. 

Gadinia garnoti Payr. Romagnola. 

Actaeon tornatilis L. Bay of Siracuse. 

Bulla striata Brug. Romagnola. 

Haminea navicula globosa Jeff. Siracuse. 

Philine aperta L. Siracuse. 

Conus mediterranea Hw. Siracuse, Romagnola. 

Mangilia attenuata Monts. Romagnola. 

Marginella miliaria L. Romagnola. 

Marginella philippii Monts. Siracuse. 

Mitra ebenus Lamk. Romagnola, Siracuse. 

Fusus pulchellus Phil. Romagnola, Siracuse. 

Fusus syracusanus L. Siracuse. 

Latirus lignarius L. Siracuse. 

Tritonidea orbignyi Payr. Romagnola. 

Euthria cornea L. Romagnola. 

Nassa cornicula Oliv. Romagnola. 

Nassa costulata Ren. var. flavida Monts. Romagnola. 

Nassa cuvieri Payr. Romagnola. 

Nassa reticulata Lamk. var. nitida Jeff. Siracuse. 

Cyclonassa neritea L. Siracuse. 

Columbella rustica L., C. scripta L. Romagnola. 

Murex brandaris L. Palermo, Siracuse. 

Murex edwardsi Payr., trunculus L. Romagnola, Siracuse. 

Murex trunculus L. var. portulana Monts. Palermo. 

Typhis tetrapterus Bronn. Romagnola. 

Lachesis mamillata Risso. Romagnola. 

Purpura haemastoma L. Romagnola. 


Lotorium cutaceum L. Palermo. 

Lotorium reticulatum Beek. Romagnola. 

Cassis sulcosa Brug. Siracuse. 

Morio echinophora L. Siracuse. 

Cypraea lurida L. Siracuse. 

Cypraea pyrum L. Palermo. 

Cypraea spurea L. Near Taormina. 

Trivia europea Monts., T. pulex Sol. Romagnola. 

Chenopus pespelicani L. Messina, Siracuse. 

Triforis perversus L. Romagnola. 

Cerithium mediterranean! Desh. Romagnola. 

Cerithium mediteranneum Desh. var., C. vulgatum Brug. Siracuse. 

Bittium lacteum Phil. Romagnola. 

Vermetus subcancellatus Bivon, V. subdentatus. Romagnola. 

Turritella communis Risso. Siracuse. 

Littorina obtusata L. var. neritoides L. Siracuse. 

Rissoa cimex L. var. turrita Monts., R. monodonta Biv., R. subcoa- 
tulata Schw. Romagnola. 

Rissoa venusta Phil. Siracuse. 

Rissoina bruguieri Payr. Romagnola. 

Amnicola subcarinata Monts. Anapo, Siracuse. 

Bithinia anapensis Benoit. Anapo, Siracuse. 

Cyclostoma elegans Mull. var. villicum Monts. Monreale, Pal- 
ermo, Siracuse, Taormina. 

Cyclostoma siculum Sowb. = costulatum Ziegl. Girgenti. 

Pomatias paladilhianus S. Simon. Monte Pelligrino. 

Natica millepunctata Lamk. Romagnola, Tamorina. 

Natica josephinae Risso. Romagnola. 

Scala communis Lamk. Romagnola, Siracuse. 

Odostomia polita Bivon. Romagnola. 

Eulima boscii Payr. Romagnola, Siracuse. 

Neritina fluviatilis L. Anapo, Siracuse. 

Neritina meridionalis Phil. Siracuse. 

Neritina viridis L. Romagnola. 

Phasianella pulla L. Romagnola. 

Phasianella punctata Mich. Siracuse. 

Leptothyra sanguinea L. Siracuse. 

Astralium rugosum L. Taormina. 

Trochus turbinatus Born. Romagnola. 


Clanculus cruciatus L. var. rosea Monts. Siracuse. 
Monodonta articulata Lamk. Siracuse. 
Gibbula aclansoni Payr. Siracuse. 
Gibbula divaricata L. Romagnola. 
Calliostoma conulus L. Messina, Taormina. 
Calliostoma depictum Desh., C. laugieri Payr. Romagnola. 
Haliotis lamellosa Lamk. Siracuse, Taormina. 
Fissurella gibberula Lamk., F. graeca Lamk., F. litoralis Monts., 
F. neglecta Resh., F. nubecula L. Romagnola. 

.rCl^wVS V*V 4Lw\rfiJi** * JkEU WWUAMI " * j-wv^ui*^_i. 

Emarginula solidula Costa. Taormina. 

Patella ca^rulea L. Messina, Romagnola. 

Patella lusitanica Gm. Siracuse. 

Ischnochiton polii Phil. Romagnola. 

Dentalium novemcostatum Lamk. Romagnola. 

Ostrea edulis L. Palermo, Taormina. 

Anomia ephippium L. Taormina. 

Spondylus gsederopus Lamk. Palermo. 

Chlamys multistriatus Poli, C. pes-felis L. Taormina. 

Chlamys sulcatus Born. Siracuse. 

Chlamys varius L. Palermo. 

Lima inflata Chem. Palermo. 

Mytilus edulis L. Taormina. 

Modiola barbata Lamk. Romagnola. 

Area barbata L., A. lactea L., A. noae L. Romagnola. 

Unio requieni Lamk. Anapo, Siracuse. 

Cardita calyculata Lamk. Taormina. 

Cardium aculeatum L., C. paucicostatum Sowb. Siracuse. 

Cardium tuberculatnm L. var. Romagnola. 

Chama gryphoides L. Romagnola. 

Tapes beudanti Payr., T. geographica Gm. Romagnola. 

Venus gallina L. Siracuse. 

Venerupis iris L. Romagnola. 

Donax trunculus L. Romagnola. 

Solen vaginoides Lamk. Siracuse. 

Mactra corallina L. Mondello. 

Lucina lactea L. Messina. 

Lucina desmoresti Par. Romagnola. 

Tellina tenuis Da Costa. Siracuse. 

Gastrana f'ragilis L. Romagnola. 

Solemya niediterranea Lamk. Romagnola. 




During the summer of 1908 the writer made a dredging trip out- 
side of the entrance to San Diego harbor, dredging in from 15 to 60 
fathoms of water. The following list includes all the species obtained 
and also a few deep-water species secured from fishermen. This 
locality is very rich in molluscan life, especially in smaller forms. 
Including the Opisthobranchs my list of San Diego shells contains 
over 600 species and varieties. I am greatly indebted to Dr. Wil- 
liam H. Dall, Mr. Paul Bartsch and Prof. F. W. Kelsey for assist- 
ance in determining doubtful species. 

Murex californicus Hds. 

" carpenteri Dall. 

" festivus Hinds. 

" incisus Brod. 

" santarosana Dall. 1 
Ocinebra foveolata Hds. 
Ocinebra interfossa Cpr. 
Ocinebra interfossa muricata 

Ocinebra interfossa atropurpurea 

Cuma muricata Hds. 
Trophon belcheri Hds. 
Trophon triangulatus Cpr. 
Fusus kobelti Dall. 
Gyrineum californicum Hds. 
Chrysodomus aphelus Dall. 
Chrysodornus kellettii Fbs. 
Nassa cooperi Fbs. 

" fossata Gld. 

" insculpta Cpr. 

" mendica Gld. 

" perpinguis Hds. 
Mitra lowei Dall. 
Mitra maura Swains. 
Erato columbella Mke. 

Erato vittellina Hds. 
Marginella jewettii Cpr. 

" pyriformis Cpr. 

" regularis Cpr. 

" varia Sby. 

Olivella biplicata Sby. 
Olivella pedroana Conr. 
Columbella carinata Hds. 

" chrysalloidea Cpr. 

" gouldii Cpr. 

" guasapata Gld. 

" hindsi Rve. 

" tuberosa Cpr. 

Engina carbonaria Rve. 
Amphissa corrugata Rve. 
Amphissa versicolor Rve. 
Myurella simplex Cpr. 
Cancellaria cooperi Gabb. 
Cancellaria crawfordiana Dall. 
Pleurotoma carpenteriana Gabb. 
Pleurotoma perversa Gabb. 
Pleurotoma montereyensis 

Pleurotoma santarosana Dall. 
Pleurotoma stearnsiana Ray- 

or seven specimens at 17 fathoms. 



Pleurotoma tryoniana G abb. 2 
Turris(Surcula) halcyonis Dull. 
Drillia empyrosia Dall. 
" bemphilli Stearns. 
" penicillata Cpr. 
Bela grippi Dall n. sp. 8 
Mitromorpha aspera Cpr. 
Cytbara cranneri Arnold. 
Mangelia angulata Cpr. 

" fuscoligata Cpr. 

" hamata Cpr. 

" merita, Gld. 

" sculpturata Dall. 

" striosa C. B. Ad. 

" variegata Cpr. 
Conus californicus Hds. 
Trivia solandri Gray. 
Trivia californica Gray. 
Ovula spelta Lam.* 
Polinices lewisii Gld. 
Polinices recluziana Desh. 
Lamellaria stearnsiana Dall. 
Macrompbalina californica Dall. 
Crepidula aculeata Gmel. 

" adunca Sby. 

" dorsata Brod. 
Crepidula navicelloides Nutt. 
In aperture of Polynices. 

Crepidula onyx Sby. On Pom- 

aulax undosus. 
Capulus californicus Dall. On 

Pecten diegensis. 
Amaltliea tumens Cpr. 

Scala bellastriata Cpr. 
" catalinse Dall. 
" near hemphilli Dall. 
" bindsi Cpr. 
" lowei Dall. 
" retiporosa Cpr. 
" sarvinae Dall. 
Turritella cooperi Cpr. 
Mesalia californica Dall. 
Mesalia tennisculpta Cpr. 
Vermicularia fewkesi Yates. 
Caecum californicum Dall. 
" crebricinctum Cpr. 
" magnum Stearns. 
' orcutti Dall. 
" regulare Cpr. 
Eulima bistorta Van. 
" micans Cpr. 
" rutila Cpr. 
'< solitaria C. B. Ad. 
" thersites Cpr. 
Liostraca varians Sby. 5 
Turbonilla castanea Cpr. 

" eschscholtzi D. & B. 
" kelseyi D. & B. 
" laminata Cpr. 
" oldroydi D. & B. 
" painei D. & B. 
" tenuicula Gld. 

" torquata Gld. 
" tridentata Cpr. 
Odostomia americana D. & B. 
" amianta D. & B. 

3 One young shell in dredge. Specimens 90 mm. in length from fishermen. 
6 Ten specimens at 17 fathoms. 

4 Three large specimens at 18 fathoms, new to the Pacific Coast. 

6 A beautiful little brown shell polished like a Eulima. which it resembles. 
Eight specimens dredged at 18 fathoms, new to the California coast. 




Odostomia astricta D. & B. 
" avellana Cpr. 

gouldi Cpr. 
helga D. & B. 
nuciformis Cpr. 

Eulithidium cyclostoma Cpr. 
Eulitliidium substriatum Cpr. 
Pachypoma inasquale Mart. 
Pomaulax undosus Wood. 
Chlorostoma aureotinctum Fbs. 
Chlorostoma pulligo Mart. 
Gibbula parcipicta Cpr. 

" straminea Cpr. 

Odostomia straminea grippi D. Gibbula optabilis Cpr. 

& B. on Haliotis assimilis Ball. Leptothyra carpenteri Pils. 

Odostomia straminea insculpta Leptothyra bacula Cpr. 


Odostomia valdezi D. & B. 
Odostomia virginalis D. &. B. 
Pyramidella conica Cpr. 
Lacuna unifasciata Cpr. 
Fossarus fenestratus Cpr. 
Fossarus obtusus Cpr. 
Alabina californica Dall. 
Bittium asperum Cpr. 

" armillatum Cpr. 

" esuriens Cpr. 

" interfossa Cpr. 

" quadrifilatum Cpr. 
Seila assimilis C. B. Ad. 
Cerithiopsis metaxas Chiaje. 
Cerithiopsis tuberculata Mont. 
Triforis adversa Mont. 
Rissoina bakeri D. & B. 
Rissoina kelseyi Dall. 
Barleeia subtennis Cpr. 
Rissoa grippiana Dall. 
Rissoa reticulata Cpr. 
Liotia acuticostata Cpr. 
Liotia fenestrata Cpr. 
Phasianella compta Gld. 
Phasianella pulloides Cpr. 

Turcica caffea Gabb. 

Halistyluspupoides Dall. 

Halistylus subpupoides Tryon. 

Vitrinella complanata Cpr. 

Vitrinella subplana Cpr. 

Norrisia norrisii Sby. 

Calliostoma gemmulatum Cpr. 

Calliostoma gloriosum Dall. 

Calliostoma canaliculatum par- 
vum Williamson. 

Calliostoma supragranosum Cpr. 

Calliostoma tricolor Gabb. 

Calliostoma turbinum Dall. 

Haliotis assimilis Dall. 6 

Haliotis rufesceus Swains. 

Fissuridea aspera Esch. 

Puncturella cooperi Cpr. 

Puncturella cucullata Gld. 

Emarginula bella Gabb. 

Lepidopleurus (Oldroydia) per- 
crassus Dall. 

Cha?topleura gemmea Cpr. 


Ischnochiton clathratus Rve. 

Ischnochiton cooperi acutior 

'Four live specimens found on rocks hauled up in the dredge. Of H. rufea- 
cens I got one specimen attached to lobster trap. 





Acteon punctocoelatus Cpr. 
Tornatina cerealis Gld. 
" culcitella Gld. 
harpa Dall. 
inculta Gld. 
planata Cpr. 
Volvula cylindrica Cpr. 
Cylichna attonsa Cpr. 
Bulla quoyi Auct. 
Cadulus quadrifissatus Cpr. 
Cadulus nitentior Cpr. 
Dentalium neohexagonum Pils. 
Dentalium vallicolens Raymond. 
Siliqua lucida Conr. 
Corbula luteola Cpr. 
Corbula luteola roseaWilliamson 
Periploma discus Stearns 
Lyonsia californica Conr. 

" inflata Conr. 

" nitida Gld. 
Mactra dolabriformis Conr. 
Spisula hetnphillii Dall. 
Semele pulchra Sby. 
Semele rubropicta Dall. 
Cooperella subdiaphana Cpr. 
Rochefortia tumida Cpr. 
Tellina bodegensis Hds. 

" buttoni Dall. 

" carpenter! Dall. 

" idaj Dall. 

modesta Cpr. 
santarosana Dall. 


Venerupis lamellifera Conr. 
Psephidea ovalis Dall. 
Psephidea salmonea Cpr. 
Paphia tenuissima Cpr. 
Cardium substriatum Conr. 
Cardium quadrigenarium Conr. 
Protocardia centifilosa Cpr. 
Phacoides annulata Rve. 
Phacoides approximatus Dall. 
Serridens oblonga Cpr. 
Crassinella varians C. B. Ad. 
Cardita subquadrata Cpr. 
Milneria minima Dall. 
Venericardia ventricosa Gld. 
Nucula castrensis Hds. 
Leda cuneata Hani. 
" hamata Cpr 
" taphria Dall. 

Area solida Sby. 
Glycymeris intermedia Brod. 

Modiolus rectus Conr. 

Philobrya setosa Cpr. 

Lima dehiscens Conr. 

Pecten diegensis Dall. 7 

Pecten giganteus Gray. 

Monia macroscliisma Desh. 

Terebratulina caput-serpentis L. 

Terebratulina caput-serpentis 
unguicula. Cpr. 20 faths. 

Terebratalia transversa Sby. 

Platidea anomioides Scacchi. 

Glottidea albida Hinds. 

* Several young specimens dredged. Have secured from fishermen several 
large and beautiful specimens. 






The shell is shortly rimate, im perforate, the lower third or halt 
cylindric, the rest slowly tapering to the truncate summit ; rather 
solid ; brown. Sculpture of backwardly arched narrow ribs, much 
narrower than their intervals except on the last whorl, where they 
are more slender and closely crowded. There are about 65 ribs on 
the penultimate whorl. On some of the later whorls the ribs are some- 
times weak and rather irregular. The apical breach is closed by a 
steep, slightly convex plug densely covered with strongly projecting 
granules. Whorls remaining slightly convex, at least the upper 
ones have a delicate keel close under the suture ; last whorl rounded 
basally, having a very weak, inconspicuous, spiral basal cord. Last 
half whorl straightened, produced forward beyond the preceding 
whorl. The aperture is oblique, rounded ovate ; peristome obtuse, 
narrowly recurved. The internal column is moderately large, its 
diameter contained 3.7 to 4 times in that of the shell. Within each 
whorl it is rather strongly obliquely swollen, and typically bears a 
few oblong granules in place of the obliquely vertical laminae of 
typical species of Crelocentrum. 

Length 35, diam. 8.1 mm.; whorls remaining 12. 

Length 37, diam. 8 mm.; whorls remaining 13. 

Length 35, diam. 8 mm.; whorls remaining 11. 

Length 39, diam. 8 mm.; whorls remaining 14. 

San Luis Potosi : highest Mt. on south side of river at Mecos 
Falls, and bluff 3 miles north of San Dieguito. 

This is a variable species, represented by many specimens from 
two localities. In some examples the rather large internal column 
bears distinct elongated granules ; others have low nodes, while still 
others have whitish lines which project only slightly from the surface 
of the column. 

Five specimens of a series from San Dieguito measure : 

Length 46, diam. 8.5 mm.; whorls remaining 

Length 41, diam. 9 mm.; whorls remaining 12 

Length 38.5, diam. 7.7 mm.; whorls remaining 



Length 36.5, diam. 8.7 mm.; whorls remaining 

Length 32, diam. 8.2 mm.; whorls remaining 10^. 

At the Mecos Falls locality there is a small, slender form occur- 
ring with the types, having only very slight, hardly noticeable nodes 
on the spiral swelling of the axis. The aperture is carried forward 
further than in the typical examples. Two of these measure: 

Length 35, diam. 7.1 mm.; whorls remaining 12^. 

Length 32.2, diam 7.1 mm.; whorls remaining 12. 


The shell is shortly rimate, imperforate, the lower half cylindric, 
upper half slowly tapering to the truncate summit; thin; pale 
brown. The surface has a silky luster, and is densely sculptured 
with thread-like ribs, which arch backward, and are about as wide as 
their intervals except on the last whorl, where they are finer and 
more closely crowded. On the penultimate whorl there are about 
90 (88 to 92) ribs. The breach at the summit is closed by a very 
convex, granulose plug. Remaining whorls ll to 14, slightly 
convex, having a minute carina below the suture and very close to 
it. The last whorl is convex and has a scarcely noticeable basal 
cord ; its last half is straightened, and projects shortly (about 1 
mm.) forward. The aperture is oblique, rounded-ovate, the upper 
margin straightened. Peristome obtuse, narrowly recurved through- 
out. The internal axis is very slender throughout, weakly sinuous 
within each whorl, smooth, its diameter contained 8^ times in that of 
the shell. It opens by a minute perforation at the summit. 

Length 32, diam. 6.8 mm.; 13 whorls remaining. 

Length 32.8, diam. 6.2 mm.; 14^ whorls remaining. 

Length 30, diam. 6.5 mm.; ll whorls remaining. 

Length 27.8, diam. 6.4 mm.; 12 whorls remaining. 

Length 27.8, diam. 6.2 mm.; ll whorls remaining. 

This form occurred in the same locality with Streptostyla bartschi, 
near Mecos Falls. It stands close to the preceding species, but 
differs by its much more numerous ribs, the much more slender 
internal axis, and the last whorl does not run forward so far. It 
is remarkable for the small size of the internal column. 

In a young shell 11 mm. long with 14 whorls the first 1^ whorls 
forming the hemispherical summit are perfectly smooth and measure 
1^ mm. in diameter. Then very fine very short riblets appear 


below the suture, and to the 6th whorl the caliber of the shell de- 
creases slightly. Beyond this the caliber increases slowly, and the 
riblets gradually become longer, though a smooth band persists along 
the middle of each whorl as far as about the 16th whorl, after which 
the ribs are continuous. 

The above forms, with others, will be figured in a future report on 
the shells collected by Mr. Hinkley. 




Shell globose, very thin and fragile; periostracum light yellowish 
or brownish-horn; surface dull; sculpture of fine growth-lines, without 
spiral lines; whorls 3^, very rapidly increasing in diameter, the body 
whorl seven-eighths the length of the entire shell, very globose; spire 
very short, depressed, dome-like, the first two whorls flat and coiled 
in the same plane so that a profile view shows only two full whorls. 
Nuclear whorls flat, partly concealed by the volutions of the spire; 
sutures impressed; aperture round or roundly elliptical; outer lip thin; 
inner lip broad, triangular, reflected over the columellar region, but 
leaving a deep, well-marked chink; the inner edge of the inner lip is 
usually bent downward near the body whorl, partly concealing the 
umbilical chink; parietal callus thin; axis smooth, hourglass-shaped. 

Length 7.00, breadth 5.50; aperture length 4.75, breadth 3.00 mm. 

Length 6.25, breadth 5.00; aperture length 4.00, breadth 2.50 mm. 

Length 6.75, breadth 5.00; aperture length 4.80, breadth 3.00 mm. 

Length 5.50, breadth 4.10; aperture length 4.00, breadth 2.50 mm. 

Types: Chicago Academy of Sciences, six specimens, No. 24534; 
Co-types : University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

West of Fort Collins, Laramie county, Colo. 

Ecology: Inhabits lagoons and intermittent bodies of waters. 
Judge Henderson writes of the habitat as follows: " I am informed 
that there had been no water in the lagoon for many months, prob- 
ably since last summer or autumn. The ground was cracked to a 
depth of several inches and the mollusks were found down in the 
cracks in the mud. Therefore, it seems to be another species cap- 
able of aestivating." 


Remarks: This species was at first thought to be Lymnaa sono- 
maensis Hemphill, but a comparison with that species shows that the 
present species differs not only from sonomaensis,\^ui from all related 
species in the form of the spire and aperture. The first two whorls 
of the spire are coiled in the same plane, producing an abruptly trun- 
cated appearance. The inner lip is triangular and not evenly 
rounded as in techella and its varieties, but similar to that of buli- 
moides, from which it differs in its truncated spire. The only form 
likely to be confounded with hendersoni is sonomaensis, which differs 
in the form of the spire and inner lip. 

I take great pleasure in dedicating this interesting species to 
Judge Junius Henderson, of the University of Colorado. 



Mussel large, high, inequipartite, oblique, well inflated; beaks 
rather large, rounded, prominent, inclined towards the anterior; 
upper margin strongly and regularly curved in the adult, less so or 
nearlv straight in young specimens, ventral margin rather well and 
regularly curved; anterior part of the mussel much smaller than the 
posterior, its outlines rounded or slightly truncate, posterior rounded 
or truncate obliquely, the end rather drawn downward, rounded or 
subangular; surface with rather coarse to medium, sharp, concentric 
striae, regular over the beaks, less so over the balance of the valves, 
and with about six to eight impressed lines of growth, deepest pos- 
teriorly, with the interstices somewhat bulging; color chalky-whitish 
to light or deep gray, in some specimens with alternate zones of light 
and dark; shell thick; muscle insertions slightly marked, large, not 
impressed; hinge strong, plate moderately broad, rather long; car- 
dinal teeth small, rather typically to irregularly formed, the poste- 
rior of the left valve often wanting or rudimentary; laterals rather 
large, those of the right valve projecting inward, those of the left 
only slightly so; anterior short, the left raised cusp-like, the posterior 
all rather long, not raised to cusps. 

Long. 18, alt. 16, diam. 11-12 mm.; average; the largest, 21 mm. 


Fossil, in pleistocene or possibly later deposits on the shore of 
Bear Lake, Utah, collected by the Hayden Survey, in company with 
Planorbis trivolvis Say (var.), Carinifex newberryi Lea, Lymnaa 
utahensis Call, and Fluminicola fusca Hald. There are about 200 
valves in the lot, including one right and one left of rather small 
juv. The specimens are in the collection of the A. N. S. P., No. 

This Spharium cannot be ranged under any of the described recent 
species. Of about the same length with S. sulcatum Lam., the mus- 
sel is of very different shape and appearance : much higher, much 
more inequipartite, the beaks are much narrower and more promi- 
nent; the shell and hinge are stronger. It resembles more some 
forms of S. aureum Pr. (resp. forms ranged under that species), but 
is larger, more inequipartite and oblique. 

It is worthy of notice that in numerous specimens the hinges are 
partially or wholly reversed, just as in most of our recent species of 
this group, and the posterior cardinal tooth of the left valve is 
wanting or rudimentary, in some specimens well enough preserved 
to show such details. So far as can be seen from a few fresher, not 
chalky, specimens, the color was whitish or reddish to grayish, and 
the surface shining. 

The species is named in honor of Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, to whom I 
am indebted for the opportunity of examining this fine lot of fossils. 


Note on Pholadomya pacifica Dall. This species was first diag- 
nosed in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Quarterly Issue, 
July, 1907, no. 1727, p. 172. The fuller description and account 
which appeared in the March number of the NAUTILUS (1909) had 
been prepared and sent to the editor in May, 1907, as the publica- 
tion of my paper in the Quarterly was then indefinitely delayed. 
As I saw no proofs of the NAUTILUS issue, this fact is not stated in 
it, but I now make the correction. Since both notices were pre- 
pared, another complete specimen in excellent condition was dis- 
covered in the Albatross collection, but unfortunately, though fresh, 
it did not contain the soft parts. The presence of a resilium was 
confirmed. The localities of the two dredgings have been received. 


They are station 4904, near Nagasaki, in 107 fathoms, sand and 
shell, bottom temperature about 53 F., and station 4807, off 
Hakodate, in 44 fathoms, gravel, temperature about 45 F., judging 
from that at nearby stations. The fresh specimen is of a creamy 
white, faintly pearly internally. I may add that the two species of 
alleged Pholadomya, referred to in the text of the NAUTILUS article, 
are now considered to belong to the genus Panacea (Dall, 1905) 
with several others dredged in the deep waters of the Atlantic. 

MR. L. V. DALTON, in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society (London), Ixiv, Nov. 1908, p. 631, records Busycon canalicu- 
latum (L.) from the Miocene of Burma. His figure will scarcely 
convince skeptical American conchologists. From what we know 
of the geological history of the shell in question and its allies, and 
taking into consideration the fact that the veliger stage in Busycon 
(Fulgur} is passed through inside the egg-capsule, and hence it has 
no free swimming period, a record of its distribution half round the 
earth needs better evidence than Mr. Dalton is satisfied with. 

winter examined a part of my collection of small land shells, and 
the result of his labor has been the identification of the following 
additions to those already reported from Aroostook county, 

Strobilops ajfinis Pils. 

Vertigo ovata Say. 

Vertigo nylanderi Sterki. 

Euconulus chersinus Say. 

All the above were collected in the town of Woodland. 

The oyster is cool and clear and calm, 
Admired by the many and not the few ; 

Yet, sorry to say, possesses a way 
Of getting himself in a stew. 


ERRATA. Numbers 8, 9 and 10 of Vol. xxi were marked by 
error " Vol. xxii " on the date lines, pages, 85, 97, 109, but not 
on the cover of those numbers. This note is published to obvi- 
ate errors in binding Vol. xxi. 

The following corrections should be made in Vol. xxii : 

P. 47, end of line 4, delete 7. 

P. 78, 7th line from foot, for plate vi, read vii, viii. 

P. 82, top line, for NAUTILUS xxii, read xxi. 

P. 101, under Quadrula coccinea, in place of "Found gravid 
on June 18 '," etc., it should read : Found gravid by the writer on 
June 18, '08, in Neshannock Creek, Lawrence Co., and received 
gravid from the Allegheny River, McKean Co. (collected by Mr. 
Dennis Dally on June 22, ' 

THE marriage is announced of Miss Elizabeth J. Letson, Di- 
rector of the Buffalo Academy of Natural Science, to Mr. Wil- 
liam Alanson Bryan, of the Pacific Institution of Science, on 
March 16th. Mr. and Mrs. Bryan will be at home in Honolulu 
after May 4th. 

DR. V. STERIU is spending the month in studying Sphserium 
and Pisidium in the museums of Boston, Cambridge, Philadel- 
phia and Washington. 

MR. A. A. HINKLEY, who returned from a collecting trip in 
Mexico last month, reports good collecting, especially in fresh- 
water mollusks. 

AN interesting biographical memoir of William More Gabb, the 
palaeontologist and conchologist, read by Dr. W. H. Dall at the 
November meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, has just 
been published. A bibliography of Gabb's scientific works is ap-